Free Essay

Interactions Between North Americans and Japanese : Considerations of Communication Style the Summary

In: Social Issues

Submitted By aryandhikatmaja
Words 1295
Pages 6
Interactions between North Americans and Japanese :
Considerations of Communication Style
The Summary

Communication style has a very big impact on the dynamics of face-to-face encounters, that is, whether a conversation proceeds smoothly or by fits and starts, whether both continually interrupt each other or are both able to talk simultaneously without interrupting and whether their style of listening match. Differences in ethnic background coupled with those of communication style probably increase chances that implicit unverbalized matters will be overlooked or misinterpreted. To be able to understand deeper and more sophisticated effects of style differences can take years. In exploring such differences of “the other”, one cannot help but come to understand the cultural factors that have shaped one’s own style. In the communication between Japanese and Non-Japanese there are intercultural communication blocks that have to be considered, which are, problems on direct and indirectness, individuality and groups view, decision making, and discussion.

Components of Communication Style According to some experts there are various things included in the components of communication style, such as: topics of discussions, favorite interaction forms -ritual, repartee, argument, and self disclosure- and involvement depth, as well as the channel people rely upon (Dean Barlund) ; behaviors –gesticulation, eye contact, speech and kinetic rhythm, and listening behavior- (Erickson) ; interruptions, pauses, laughter, inductive and deductive statements, and types of question ( E.S Johnson). However, in this discussion, there are three variables suggested as a core to explore communication style: (1) orientation to interaction, (2) code preference, and (3) interaction format. These are not to be understood as stereotype descriptions of all members of any cultural group but rather as stylistic preferences of the cultural group as a whole. Communication style orientations are anchored in cultural standards but allow for individual movement depending upon the situation and cultural constraints.

1. Orientation to Interaction North Americans Japanese
Locus of Self Individualistic Interpersonal
View of Reality Objective Subjective

The North American built the values of self-sufficiency and independence. It is important to acknowledge differences of experience, ability, and opinion which separate individuals and highlight who we are. Japanese are less anchored by an internally identified self-concept as by lines leading to friends, colleagues, and family. The orientation brought to North Americans was objectivity, emphasizing a belief in cause and effect in linear determinism. Validity and reliability are prerequisites of “solid” research; conclusions or action plans should follow clearly from premises and needs analyses. In contrast, Japanese have traditionally been more oriented toward a human relations (ningen kankei) reality: “In order to attain an end, whether social or nonsocial, the creation, maintenance, or manipulation of a relevant social relationship is a foremost and indispensable means.” Thus, in their style of communication Japanese preferred passive-withdrawing forms that allowed interpersonal accommodation with the target person, while the North Americans frequently chose more individualistic, active-aggressive forms of criticism and focused on the objective problem rather than the person. However, within the two cultural ideals presented, then there is evidence of change: North Americans are being criticized for extreme focus on self and urged to consider the rewards of more collective attitudes, while the Japanese are becoming aware that intergroup competition and intragroup divisiveness can be paralyzing; they begin to recognize the importance of being more objective in planning and problem solving.

2. Code Preference North Americans Japanese Verbal (and nonverbal) Nonverbal (and verbal)

For anyone whose identity emerges from being separate and unique differences between self and others are emphasized. Primers for effective communication warn against making assumptions about others’ needs or want and stress speaking about yourself. North American consciously separate fact, inference and judgment, and they suggest withholding judgment upon entering new culture. They are admonished not to fill in the meaning before checking it out. It is also assumed that only through detailed verbalization can one most concretely and accurately “check out” what the other means. In the other hand, Japanese prefer a style of communicating that appreciates and employs assumptions about the opinions and feelings of their compatriots. There is a vast difference between a primary emphasis upon verbalization or written forms and a primary emphasis upon what can be sensed, guessed at, and inferred from the total situation before verbalization. An impressive rather than expressive emphasis places high value on the person who can “hear one and understand ten.” Speaking is no longer considered a vice; the concept of enryo translates into a hesitancy to speak frankly and immediately and shows concern over being labeled thoughtless. When crossing cultural boundaries a common problem is the inability to distinguish between the literal and more figurative or ritualistic meanings of a phrase or behavior. While this is a universal problem, a newcomer to Japan is especially confronted with this issue because of the cultural emphasis on form. The inability to learn quickly about the forms and rituals of Japan by asking the right question and getting the right answer is in part the basis for perceptions that Japan is an ambiguous and mysterious culture. Being able to comprehend the interplay among significant situational variables and being able to assess how one fits into the overall situation is critical in creating successful face-to-face interactions with the Japanese.

3. Interaction Format North Americans Japanese Persuasive Harmonizing Quantitative Holistic Pragmatic Process-oriented

The persuasive function is highly emphasized for North Americans. If one can be shown the facts, the numbers, the details, or the direct correlation between cause and effect logically and objectively, he or she will accept the point. Resistance to the point can imply that the receiver is unreasonable, illogical, too emotional, or stubborn. As well as in satisfying conversation, it is felt that “two-way contrast is a point of departure.” All parties to a conversation are responsible for their own opinion; active give-and-take is expected. In the other hand, the Japanese concept of conversation includes an attitude of sharing, of “I start my sentence and you finish it” rather than “I finish my sentence and you say yours”. Japanese do, of course, interact in persuasive modes; traditionally, however, one is not persuaded solely by verbal skills or logical construction of an argument, rather, one can be brought over by another’s status and age, or by emotional, empathetic feeling that the situation or the relationship might call forth. For North Americans the ultimate purpose of communication is often pragmatic. Behavior accumulates and contributes to accomplishing an end result. Experience must be quantified so that the most expedient logical action can be taken. The ideal is to know exactly how much for exactly how long to accomplish exactly what. Evaluation, too, must be in the form of numbers, not feelings. However, what North Americans may quantify, Japanese may deal with as common sense. They would prefer an end-of-day discussion and then resolve as individuals and as a group to “do better” for tomorrow. The Japanese don’t put a percentage. The Japanese place emphasis on the process of doing something as well as on the product or end result. Events are not separated from the process or from the people involved. The variable of “interaction format” greatly influences the establishment and maintenance of relationships between Japanese and North Americans. It is important to realize that in Japan one rarely accomplishes anything by oneself. Although one person may carry the majority of responsibility, it is vital to continually involve others so that an overall feeling of group effort and achievement is shared. Determining who these “appropriate others” are and learning how to include them can be a long and involved process. Inability to handle these “how” and “who” aspects can contribute to discomfort and bewilderment for those wishing to work within a Japanese context.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Culture Management

...Managing cross cultural communication Introduction Globalization is a phenomenon that is in vogue nowadays. In this rapidly changing world to succeed it’s imperative for an organization to adopt the phenomenon of globalization. On one hand globalization cultivates scores of benefits for the organization. On the other hand, it also generates various dilemmas for management. One of these dilemmas is of effective communication management. This phenomenon of globalization presents challenges of understanding and managing cross-cultural communications. According to Stephen Roberts: “Culture is the framework in which we communicate” This suggests that various factors give rise to the problem of cross-cultural communication. These factors include: language, environment, technology, social organization, the perception of authority and non-verbal communications. Having the ability to assess these variables is vital in ensuring for managers to convey messages and conduct business across a wide range of cultures. This paper addresses communication within multicultural project teams and the significance of leadership style in managing cross-cultural communications. The aim of this paper is to reveal different ways or skills that managers need to adopt to make the process of communication effective. Furthermore, this paper sheds lights on variegated barriers that may exist in effective communication process in a cross-culture environment. Literature review Zapf...

Words: 2491 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Cross Cultural Negotiation

...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In its basic form, negotiation is a method of conflict resolution. It is a problem-solving process in which two or more parties attempt to resolve their disagreement or conflict in a manner, and through a process, that is mutually agreeable. Whereas the general concept of negotiation is easy enough to understand, in practice it can be an extremely difficult proposition. Opposing views about what is right and wrong, disagreement on what is fair and equitable, understanding each other’s message and form of communication, and even the procedures that will be used to conduct negotiations are but a few of the hurdles that negotiators will encounter. Negotiation is further complicated when the parties find themselves negotiating across dissimilar cultures. Culture is a powerful factor in shaping how people think, communicate and behave. It therefore affects how they negotiate. In business arena, negotiations are crucial aspects of inter-organizational relationships like joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions, licensing and distribution agreements, and sales of products and services. As the proportion of foreign to domestic trade increases, so does the frequency of business negotiations between people from different countries and cultures. To successfully manage these negotiations, businesspeople need to know how to influence and communicate with members of cultures other than their own. This paper investigates the impact of culture on negotiations. It begins...

Words: 7726 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

International Management Finals

...International Management, 7e (Deresky) Chapter 3: Understanding the Role of Culture 1) International firms like Starbucks and McDonald's most likely modify their business practices in Saudi Arabia because of . A) prevalent religious customs and beliefs B) poor international business relationships C) low demand for American products D) tight restrictions on foreign trade Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 91 Chapter: 3 Skill: Concept AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity 2) Women in Saudi Arabia are permitted to work alongside men as . A) lawyers B) architects C) engineers D) doctors Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 91 Chapter: 3 Skill: Concept AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity 3) All of the following statements about women in Saudi Arabia are true EXCEPT that they are . A) allowed to earn a college degree B) restricted from owning businesses C) allowed to buy designer clothing D) restricted from driving cars Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 91-92 Chapter: 3 Skill: Concept AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity 4) What is the primary reason that high-end department stores operate in Saudi Arabia given the country's dress restrictions? A) Dress restrictions only apply to certain regions of Saudi Arabia. B) Women wear designer clothes for public functions when abayas are not required. C) Wealthy men and women in Saudi Arabia are interested in the latest fashion trends. D) Saudi Arabia draws travelers from Europe who want the latest designer...

Words: 20960 - Pages: 84

Premium Essay

Managing Cultura Differences

...MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES SIXTHEDITION MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES SERIES Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for the 21 st Century, Sixth Edition Philip R. Harris, Ph.D., Robert T. Moran, Ph.D., Sarah V. Moran, M.A. Managing Cultural Diversity in Technical Professions Lionel Laroche, Ph.D Uniting North American Business—NAFTA Best Practices Jeffrey D. Abbot and Robert T. Moran, Ph.D. Eurodiversity: A Business Guide to Managing Differences George Simons, D.M. Global Strategic Planning: Cultural Perspectives for Profit and Non-Profit Organizations Marios I. Katsioulodes Ph.D. Competing Globally: Mastering Cross-Cultural Management and Negotiations Farid Elashmawi, Ph.D. Succeeding in Business in Eastern and Central Europe—A Guide to Cultures, Markets, and Practices Woodrow H. Sears, Ed.D. and Audrone Tamulionyte-Lentz, M.S. Intercultural Services: A Worldwide Buyer’s Guide and Sourcebook Gary M. Wederspahn, M.A. SIXTH EDITION MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES GLOBAL LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES ST FOR THE 21 CENTURY 25TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION PHILIP R. HARRIS, PH.D. ROBERT T. MORAN, PH.D. SARAH V. MORAN, M.A. JUDITH SOCCORSY Editorial Coordinator Elsevier Butterworth–Heinemann 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803, USA Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Copyright © 2004, Philip R. Harris, Robert T. Moran, Sarah V. Moran. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a...

Words: 229816 - Pages: 920

Premium Essay

Cross Cultural Management

...Cross-Cultural Communication Theory and Practice Barry Tomalin; Brian J. Hurn ISBN: 9780230391147 DOI: 10.1057/9780230391147 Palgrave Macmillan Please respect intellectual property rights This material is copyright and its use is restricted by our standard site license terms and conditions (see If you plan to copy, distribute or share in any format, including, for the avoidance of doubt, posting on websites, you need the express prior permission of Palgrave Macmillan. To request permission please contact Cross-Cultural Communication 10.1057/9780230391147 - Cross-Cultural Communication, Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin Copyright material from - licensed to Griffith University - PalgraveConnect - 2014-04-12 This page intentionally left blank 10.1057/9780230391147 - Cross-Cultural Communication, Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin Copyright material from - licensed to Griffith University - PalgraveConnect - 2014-04-12 Cross-Cultural Communication Theory and Practice Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin Copyright material from - licensed to Griffith University - PalgraveConnect - 2014-04-12 10.1057/9780230391147 - Cross-Cultural Communication, Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin © Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin 2013 Foreword © Jack Spence 2013 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this...

Words: 129836 - Pages: 520

Premium Essay

Exam Review

...CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO GLOBAL MARKETING SUMMARY A company that engages in global marketing focuses resources on global market opportunities and threats. Successful global marketers such as Nestle, Coca-Cola, and Honda use familiar marketing mix elements – the four Ps – to create global marketing programs. Marketing, R&D, manufacturing, and other activities comprise a firm’s value chain; firms configure activities to create superior customer value on a global basis. Global companies also maintain strategic focus while pursuing competitive advantage. The marketing mix, value chain, competitive advantage, and focus are universal in their applicability, irrespective of whether a company does business only in the home country or has a presence in many markets around the world. However, in a global industry, companies that fail to pursue global opportunities risk being pushed aside by competitors. A firm’s global marketing strategy (GMS) can enhance its worldwide performance. The GMS addresses several issues. First is nature of the marketing program in terms of the balance between a standardization (extension) approach to the marketing mix and a localization (adaptation) approach that is responsive to country or regional differences. Second is the concentration of marketing activities in a few countries or the dispersal of such activities across many countries. Companies that engage in global marketing can also engage in coordination of marketing activities. Finally...

Words: 4952 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay


...Robert J. Greenleaf Training Management Corporation Princeton Training Press • Princeton, New Jersey MANAGING ACROSS CULTURES NEGOTIATING ACROSS CULTURES NEGOTIATING ACROSS CULTURES Published by: PRINCETON TRAINING PRESS Princeton, New Jersey a division of TRAINING MANAGEMENT CORPORATION 600 Alexander Road Princeton, New Jersey 08540-6011 USA Tel: Fax: Web: Email: (609) 951-0525 (609) 951-0395 Editor-in-Chief: Series Manager: Writer: Cover Design: Interior Design: Monique Rinere-Güven, Ph.D. Talia Bloch Robert J. Greenleaf Donna Lukis Bonnie Jacobs © 2000 TRAINING MANAGEMENT CORPORATION. Managing Across Cultures Series: Negotiating Across Cultures All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 1-882390-911 The Cultural Orientations Indicator®, COI® and TMC’s graphical depiction of our Cultural Orientations Model are registered trademarks of Training Management Corporation; Registration: 2,329,085 and 2,361,803. 4 Training Management Corporation TABLE OF Preface OF CONTENTS TABLE CONTENTS iii Introduction 1 Negotiation Defined Negotiating Across Cultures Chapter One: The Impact of Culture on...

Words: 37310 - Pages: 150

Premium Essay

Social and Cultural Environments

...CHAPTER 4 SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS SUMMARY Culture, a society’s “programming of the mind,” has both a pervasive and changing influence on each national market environment. Global marketers must recognize the influence of culture and be prepared to either respond to it or change it. Human behavior is a function of a person’s own unique personality and that person’s interaction with the collective forces of the particular society and culture in which he or she has lived. In particular, attitudes, values, and beliefs can vary significantly from country to country. Also, differences pertaining to religion, aesthetics, dietary customs, and language and communication can affect local reaction to brands or products as well as the ability of company personnel to function effectively in different cultures. A number of concepts and theoretical frameworks provide insights into these and other cultural issues. Cultures can be classified as high- or low-context; communication and negotiation styles can differ from country to country. Hofstede’s social value typology sheds light on national cultures in terms of power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and long- versus short-term orientation. By understanding the self-reference criterion, global marketers can overcome the unconscious tendency for perceptual blockage and distortion. Rogers’ classic study on the diffusion of innovations helps explain how products...

Words: 7481 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay


...The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture Michele J. Gelfand Jeanne M. Brett Editors STANFORD BUSINESS BOOKS The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture Edited by miche le j. ge lfand and jeanne m. brett Stanford Business Books An imprint of Stanford University Press Stanford, California 2004 C Stanford University Press Stanford, California C 2004 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford, Jr., University. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of Stanford University Press. Printed in the United States of America on acid-free, archival-quality paper Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The handbook of negotiation and culture / edited by Michele J. Gelfand and Jeanne M. Brett. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 0-8047-4586-2 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Negotiation. 2. Conflict management. 3. Negotiation—Cross-cultural studies. 4. Conflict management—Cross-cultural studies. I. Gelfand, Michele J. II. Brett, Jeanne M. bf637.n4 h365 2004 302.3—dc22 2003025169 Typeset by TechBooks in 10.5/12 Bembo Original printing 2004 Last figure below indicates year of this printing: 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 Contents List of Tables and Figures Foreword Preface xi xv ix ...

Words: 186303 - Pages: 746

Free Essay


...CHAPTER 1 ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENT POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, LEGAL, TECHNOLOGICAL LECTURE OUTLINE General Outline Opening Profile: India Becoming a Crucial Cog in the Machine at I.B.M. The Global Business Environment Management in Focus: A Small Company, A Global Approach Regional Trading Blocks Comparative Management in Focus: Opening Economy Revitalizes India Information Technology The Globalization of Human Capital The Global Manager’s Role The Political and Economic Environment The Legal Environment The Technological Environment Chapter Discussion Questions Application Exercises Experiential Exercise End-of-Chapter Case Study: Under Pressure, Dubai Company Drops Port Deal Additional Cases: India: The Employment Black Hole? Mecca Cola Student Stimulation Questions and Exercises Opening Profile: India Becoming a Crucial Cog in Machine at I.B.M. The opening profile reports on the growing importance of India as a source of low-cost services in the IT market. The Indian labor market is attractive not only due to its low wages, but also because of the scientific and managerial talent found in the country. IBM’s Indian facility in Bangalore is now the company’s second largest worldwide operation. While IBM has laid off thousands of workers in the United States, its Indian operation has greatly increased employment. Some of IBM’s competitors have also begun to move their operations to India. The opening profile raises the question of the...

Words: 96329 - Pages: 386

Premium Essay

Organizational Behaviour Assignment

...the reinforcement process by parents, teachers, and representatives of religions. Generational Differences in Values * Generations are: 1. Traditionalists 2. Baby boomers 3. Generation X 4. Generation Y * Categorized by different ages, but also distinguished by growing up under different socialization experiences; which in result could cause different values. * Such values differences might underlie the differential workplaces assets and preferences of leadership style. * Some indication that Gen X and Y are more inclined to value money, status, and rapid career growth than are boomers. * Also evidence that Gen X and Y, compared to boomers, see work as less central, value leisure more, and are more inclined toward work-life balance. * Research conducted by the Center of Creative leadership concluded that all work generations share the same values but express them differently. * Organizations may have to tailor jobs designs, leadership styles, and benefits to the generational mix of their workforces. Cultural Difference in Values Work Centrality * Work itself is...

Words: 3520 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Organizational Behavior

...ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR CONCEPTS CONTROVERSIES APPLICATIONS Seventh Edition Stephen P. Robbins 1996 Contents Part One • Introduction Chapter 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 2 Chapter 2 Responding to Global and Cultural Diversity 42 Part Two • The Individual Chapter 3 Foundations of Individual Behavior 80 Chapter 4 Perception and Individual Decision Making 130 Chapter 5 Values, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction 172 Chapter 6 Basic Motivation Concepts 210 Chapter 7 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 250 Part Three • The Group Chapter 8 Foundations of Group Behavior 292 Chapter 9 Understanding Work Teams 344 Chapter 10 Communication 374 Chapter 11 Leadership 410 Chapter 12 Power and Politics 460 Chapter 13 Conflict, Negotiation, and Intergroup Behavior 502 Part Four - The Organization System Chapter 14 Foundations of Organization Structure 548 Chapter 15 Technology, Work Design, and Stress 588 Chapter 16 Human Resource Policies and Practices 634 Chapter 17 Organizational Culture 678 Part Five - Organizational Dynamics Chapter 18 Organizational Change and Development 714 CHAPTER I • WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR? What Managers Do Let’s begin by briefly defining the terms manager and the place where managers work—the organization. Then let’s look at the manager’s job; specifically, what do managers do? Managers get things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals. Managers do...

Words: 146017 - Pages: 585

Free Essay

Business Correspondence

...FOREWORD At no time during the last three or four decades have the communication skills of individuals in the business world come under closer scrutiny than today. And never before have those who work in the business world needed better, more effective communication skills. The emerging technology appears to be increasing, rather than decreasing, the need for effective communication skills. As more individuals have ready access to desk-top equipment to process written communication, fewer support personnel will be readily available to provide editing assistance. Therefore, welldeveloped communication skills among originators are more important to success than ever before. This book is suitable for several different audiences, including undergraduate and graduate students. The organization of this manual is a logic sequence of chapters including both business communication and correspondence. The first part is dedicated to business communication and the second to business correspondence. The special features found in this edition are: 1. Examples of effective letter writing. Studies have shown students studying written business communication can learn as much, if not more, from ineffective examples of written communication as they do from effective examples. 2. Varied application problems in the writing-oriented chapters. The number of problems has been increased. While the majority of problems require the writing of a letter or report, some are designed...

Words: 59343 - Pages: 238

Premium Essay

International Management

...34.Concept of Globalization Why does the concept of GLOBALIZATION excite so much interest? We are beginning to think about the world in new ways. The importance of borders between different countries is reduced, and cross-border structures are strengthened. The power of organizations operating only within the nation state is weakened. Individuals who possess the necessary skills find it easier and faster than before to implement complex interactions. By pushing computer keys a banker can almost instantaneously transfer sums of money between London and New York, between New York and Bangkok, between Bangkok and Paris, and so on. The political and legal institutions of these different countries no longer present insurmountable obstacles to doing business between them. The problems of predicting the effects of globalization in part stem from uncertainties about how the notion should be defined. These uncertainties arise because the terms are used in many different ways. Gowan (1999) reflects on this ambiguity in the introduction to his text: The 1990s have been the decade of globalization. We see its effects everywhere: in economic, social and political life, around the world. Yet the more all-pervasive are these effects, the more elusive is the animal itself. An enormous outpouring of academic literature has failed to provide an agreed view of its physiognomy or its location and some reputable academics of Right and Left even question its very existence. It is not necessary to...

Words: 11409 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay

Understanding Cross-Cultural Management

...Understanding Cross-Cultural Management Second Edition Marie-Joëlle Browaeys & Roger Price Part One CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT Concept 1.1 Facets of culture Introduction to Part One Setting the scene This introductory chapter will give an outline of the research in the field of culture and management, which in turn serves as a framework for Part One. The concept of culture Many experts in their fields have wracked their brains to come up with what they consider to be their concept of ‘culture’. Those working in the field of cultural anthropology, alone, for example, have come up with a long list of definitions of the concept, based on their analysis of ethnological, social, psychological and linguistic data. The attempt made by Bodley (1994) to summarize these (Table I.1) gives an idea of all the facets of culture that need to be taken into account from an anthropological perspective. Although acknowledging the multiplicity of cultures, the authors of this book consider that the fundamental aspect of culture is that it is something all humans learn in one way or another. It is not something people inherit, but rather a code of attitudes, norms and values, a way of thinking that is learnt within a social environment. Family, the social environment, school, friends, work – all these help to form this code and determine how people see themselves and the world. The national culture and the particular region which people live in also help to shape a...

Words: 97340 - Pages: 390