Free Essay

Literature Review – Trauma Felt by a Counselor

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Beachlover
Words 3156
Pages 13
LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature Review – Trauma Felt by a Counselor
Marie C Klemens
Walsh University

Abstract
The purpose of this research is to identify that a counselor can be a victim of trauma, as well as their client. By taking care of oneself in a physical, mental and spiritual manner, they are preparing for a potentially well maintained professional life as a counselor. Knowledge and acceptance of these traumatic occurrences, is the first part of healing. The literature that I had obtained provided the reader, with great knowledge pertaining to the subject matter of vicarious traumatization and counter transference. By identifying both of these subjects as different forms of trauma, I also learned that they have similar qualities. With the knowledge that I am basing this research on and further exploration of this subject matter, counselors can be more prepared for their future.

Literature Review - Trauma Felt by a Counselor The counseling profession is based on the realism as a powerful, but yet private relationship between a counselor and a client, but with ethics being a factor, all efforts are centered on being impartial and having good intentions (Jaffe & Diamond, 2011). Because of the tight relationship between a counselor and his or her client, it is humanly impossible that a client and a counselor will not endure feelings and reactions towards each other (Jaffe & Diamond, 2011). Trauma is the occurrence in which an individual is confronted with an event that will affect them self or other individuals with physical, emotional or mental damage (Tippany, White & Wilcox, 2004). Counselors are trained professionals that are equipped to help an individual survive a traumatic event, without future complications. However, while listening to a client speak a counselor may become mentally unstable (Tippany, White & Wilcox, 2004). A counselor’s initial reaction may result in counter transference or vicarious traumatization (VT) (Tippany, White & Wilcox, 2004). Other people’s misery can be debilitating to a counselor, if that individual is not careful (Tippany, White & Wilcox, 2004). VT can lead to harmful changes that may occur to a counselor over time as they observe their clients misery (Tippany, White & Wilcox, 2004). Counter transference is similar, but directly states the reaction to a client during his or her therapy session; (not just the subject matter) but the individual (Schwartz, 1978). “Despite conceptual similarities, their emphases differ: cognitive schemas versus post-traumatic symptoms and burnt-out, respectively” (Jenkins & Baird, 2002, p 423). As difficult as listening may be to adult terrors, witnessing traumatic experiences, through play therapy, with a innocent child, may increase the counselor’s chance of developing traumatization (Helm, n.d.). With these two possibly occurring, a counselor needs to know how to adjust to uncomfortable situations as well as what behavior to look for when it comes to being traumatized. Finally, a counselor needs to be aware of how to help him or herself when the feeling of anxiety arises. The focus of this paper is to portray that if a counselor is continuously exposed to disturbing experiences without taking care of him or herself, the counselor may develop vicarious trauma or counter transference.
Vicarious Traumatization (VT) Listening to life’s sadness and horrors, and not being able to discuss, what was told to a counselor in privacy, it is no wonder counselors suffer emotionally (Landau, 2009). It makes sense that a clients life’s stressors would bring about anxiety and misery to a counselor, subconsciously as well as consciously (Devilly, Wright & Varker, 2009). VT stems from the constructivist self development theory (CSDT) (Helm, n.d.). Helm states that CSDT explains that continuously being subjected to a client’s trauma can affect a counselor and that a counselors’ reality is based on methods and observations. Understanding this theory can facilitate in and recognize the development of VT (Helm, n.d.). When a counselor experiences VT, he or she is seeing the world in a different sense, with his or her knowledge of the world being manipulated by a counselor’s inner self (Helm, n.d.). Devilly (2009) stated that changes such as these may involve disruption of the cognitive schemas, self, memory system and belief system. VT has a severe impact on a counselor’s mental instabilities (Devilly, Wright & Varker, 2009). This trauma was contradicted stating that clients trauma, does not have a impact and that, a client’s trauma being combined with a counselors, personal empathy and their unknown personal trauma, could cause such distress (Devilly, Wright & Varker, 2009). On a positive note, “Analysis of therapists who work with trauma patients revealed that cumulative vicarious exposure to trauma positively predicted posttraumatic growth” (Brockhouse & Cohen, 2011. p 735). “Empathy was also found to be a positive predictor of posttraumatic growth and moderated the relationship between vicarious exposure to trauma and posttraumatic growth” (Brockhouse, Cohen & Joseph, 2011. p 735). Signs of VT are depression, anxiety, and an inability to cope with his or her clients and his or her counseling profession (Riviere & Kurahashi, 2003).
Counter transference
Counter Transference maybe harmful for some, but may also be a constructive tool when working with others (Rementeria, 2011). Counter transference is considered to be the foundation of psychodynamic speculation and its practices (Walker, 2004). It has been argued that, “ideally, the concepts of transference and counter transference and the infrastructure to make them useful, should be built in from initial staff training to the management of all mainstream settings” (Rementeria, 2011. p. 41). Freud has portrayed counter transference as a repetition of the past, by the client and the counselor that lead to the clinician’s initial reaction towards their client. If counter transference occurs counselors may become a walking, talking bomb that may explode at any time (Conner, 2009). In all reality, those feelings truly belong to the old disorder, referred to as early attachment relationship (Rementeria, 2011). Psychotherapists state that they can avoid counter transference simply because he or she does not practice insight-oriented therapy (Brown, 2012). It has been stated, that if a counselor is working with either cognitive or behavioral therapy and leaving out emotion or connection, will counter act the phenomenon of counter transference (Brown, 2012). Brown, whom eschewed this viewpoint, stated that after being a trauma counselor, argued that while clients are likely to strike a nerve from the counselor, anxiety is of a normal response for any human being. Counselors should act out externally to the patient in a professional and an ethical manner; and the counselor, should not take what is being said personally (Rementeria, 2011).

Transference versus Counter Transference: What is the difference? Transference is a situation in which the counselor becomes an authority figure to the client, and with this authority the client may act on upon with regression, hostility or go the other direction and worship the counselor, which is not good either. (Izzo, 2010). Reasoning behind this acting out is, is the client may have had bad relationships with his or her parental figures, and subconsciously acting out negative or beyond positive feelings toward the counselor. Counter transference is when a counselor acts out towards a patient, because of similar experiences (Izzo, 2010). These reactions are toward the client, as well as the subject matter (Schwartz, 1978). The client maybe telling his or her story, and with this may trigger a counselors old memories, that are better off being left behind (Izzo, 2010).
How can a co-worker intervene?
“Feelings that workers experience as a result of counter transference may affect their clients as well as their clients casework, such feelings are often the concern of the supervisor as well as the counselor” (Schwartz, 1978, p 204). When this should occur, it is up to the supervisor to take the initiative to direct his or her co-worker. This can be done by exploring the implications and effects of counter transference pertaining to a particular case (Schwartz, 1978). Mary Schwartz (1978) conducted a study, with 10 graduate students placing them in situations that were closely related to their own past lives. Schwartz (1978) concluded that by reliving feelings of distress closely related to their own is an effective way for a counselor to get in touch with his or her true feelings. This distress may be of great value for his or her chosen profession (Schwartz, 1978). Individuals all come into their professions with a certain past, which may affect their ability to perform (Schwartz, 1978). Counselors’ are taught to pick up on cues of others. This would also include their co-workers (Schwartz, 1978). Colleagues can also encourage co-workers that are traumatized to take a break from his or her counseling profession (Riviere & Kurahashi, 2003). Colleagues, who had similar work experiences then the trauma victim, will be able to provide sufficient emotional and professional support (Riviere & Kurahashi, 2003). Behavioral signs that colleagues can look for include, cutting therapy sessions short as well as canceling appointments and not rescheduling with a specific individual (Burke, 2008). If a worker can recognize these behaviors, they may be able to make effective use of those particular feelings, when it comes to advising a co-worker in distress (Schwartz, 1978).
Reduce counselor trauma
Trauma counselors should be able to realize and understand that this sort of work will influence him or her mentally as well as professionally (Nelson, n.d.). Being provided with the coping skills and knowledge that a counselor will need is an effective coping mechanism when it comes to the shocking concerns and stories that a client may share. Within our society, there is a definite need to reduce potential traumatization (Rothschild, 2006). Counselors must make choices for themselves as to what will work, and what has been proven to be affective (Rothschild, 2006). Rothschild’s (2006) aim in her writings are to provide clinicians with the proper tools to increase their understanding of and decrease their liability to incidents such as traumatization. These tools include thinking clearly as well as making wise decisions. Rothschild states that the thought process is not just a cognitive exercise, but entails emotions as well. In a study conducted by Bober and Regehr (2005), 259 counselors spent time with victims of crises. Although the belief that coping skills did exist, such as taking care of oneself physically and mentally, the counselors may not have placed such strategies in this particular study. “This cross-sectional design study sought to assess whether therapists believed and engaged in commonly recommended forms of prevention for secondary and vicarious trauma and whether engaging in these activities resulted in lower levels of distress (Bober & Regehr, 2005). Counselors spending time with trauma victims, seems to be the most accurate way of calculating a true score (Bober & Regehr, 2005). This study was conducted in a self-report survey and concluded that the counselors, who spent more hours per week with their clients, had more instances of higher distress (Bober & Regehr, 2005). Counselor’s age being a factor within this study, did not show any indication of change, beyond the normal stress being measured (Bober & Regehr, 2005). Subject matters made a definite difference in the amount of distress, which the counselors were, enduring (Bober & Regehr, 2005).
Signs that indicate traumatization

Trained counselors can be aware of their own behavioral patterns as well as their clients. (Rothchild & Rand, 2006). Signs of trauma may include mental and physical exhaustion, lack of concentration, pessimism, and unhappiness, not only in one's employment, but life itself (Puterbaugh, 2008). Other signs of VT are being disconnected from oneself, sudden beliefs about a changing world, lacking principals that previously existed and a decrease within one’s spirituality as well as depression and isolation (Burke, 2008). Signs that are an indication of counter transference seem to be more visible (Burke, 2008). These signs may not be just emotional, but physical, interpersonal and behavioral (Burke, 2008). These signs include the feeling of anxiety during the session with a client, intensity for no apparent reason, guilt because the client does not seem to be making progress, being helpless, disoriented and feeling of being victimized. With counselors who are able to see these warning signs within his or her counseling profession, the process of counseling can be enlightening and positive (Walker, 2005). Good health should be maintained by all people (Puterbaugh, 2008). Puterbaugh (2008) states that if a counselor is not careful, he or she may develop compassion fatigue. This can develop if a professional fails to maintain a healthy balance of physical and emotional care and professional and personal support (Puterbaugh, 2008). Compassion fatigue is due to an overload of information brought forth by a client’s suffering (Puterbaugh, 2008). In order to identify with a client, a counselor must have a certain amount of empathy (Puterbaugh, 2008). When a counselor over identifies with a client, certain emotional boundaries may be crossed (Puterbaugh, 2008). Puterbaugh concluded in her study that if certain health measures are not taken, then the counselor involved may suffer from traumatization. The general need to take care of one’s own self is of major importance, when he or she is working as a counselor (Puterbaugh, 2008). To gain broader findings, further research should be conducted (Puterbaugh, 2008). Puterbaugh (2008) states that with further research, future findings will provide counselors with more intense training as well as techniques to avoid possible trauma.
Prevention and Treatment Prevention and Treatment involves several steps to heal the trauma that a counselor may endure during his or her lifetime (Riviere & Kurahashi, 2003). Counselors must be able to admit, verbally communicate, and cope with these painful memories in a loving and nurturing environment, as well as to maintain a well balance of physical, mental and spiritual abilities (Riviere & Kurahashi, 2003). These skills can be improved upon by gaining knowledge on the situation at hand and also by partaking in self-care activities as well as relaxed activities (Burke, 2008). Self-care tactics will assist a counselor to step out of the position of being the savior, and step into a position of empowerment for themselves and their client (Brown, 2012). By placing oneself within that mental frame, a counselor will be taking the necessary cautions to protect him or her while working with a client (Brown, 2012). Also plan to see a therapist yourself, to sort out your trauma (Burke, 2008). A counselor in distress should not ignore the symptoms, but deal directly with the disorder (Burke, 2008). Trauma is not uncommon among counselors. Statistics show that 50% of trauma counselors report that they are stressed, and 30% of trauma counselors, state that they feel a great amount of anxiety (Burke, 2008). This stress is brought on by what is stated to a counselor, but also by an individual’s own childhood traumas (Meichenbaum, n.d.). The literature that I reviewed clearly states that vicarious traumatization and counter transference can have harmful effects on a counselor as well as helpful effects. The effects that are harmful can cause him or her to become a better counselor, as well as a more empathetic person, with boundaries. It is up to counselors of today and the future to know their own limits, and be careful when their professional life becomes a health related issue. Counselors are taught to listen and hear, to a client and the problems that the client is currently facing. An individual’s body will tell him or her, when he or she has had enough, it is up to the counselor to listen.

References
Ted Bober, Ted MSW & Regehr, Cheryl PhD (2006). Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention; Strategies for Reducing Secondary or Vicarious Trauma: Do They Work? Oxford Journals, 6(1), 1-9, DOI: 10.1093; Retrieved from http://btci.edina.clockss.org/cgi/content/full/6/1/1/
Brockhouse, Msetfi R. RM., Cohen, K. & Joseph, F., (2011). Vicarious exposure to trauma and growth in therapists: the moderating effects of sense of coherence, organizational support, and empathy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(6), 735-742. Brown, Susan A. PhD. (2012). Emotional and cultural competence In the Trauma-Aware Therapist. Retrieved from http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course074.php
Burke, Patricia A. MSW (2008). Co-occurring collaborative of the state of Maine; an integrated approach to clinician self-care. Retrieved from http://www.attcnetwork.org/explore/priorityareas/wfd/grow/documents/Self-care%20Handouts%20ACT%20011808.pdf
Conner, Michael G. PsyD. (2009). Transference: Are you a biological time machine? Retrieved from http://www.crisiscounseling.com/articles/transference.htm de Rementeria, Alexandra. (2011). How the use of transference and counter transference, particularly in parent–infant psychotherapy, can inform the work of an education or childcare practitioner. Psychodynamic Practice, 17(1), 41–56, DOI: 10.1080/14753634.2011.539351
Devilly, Grant J.Wright, Renee, & Varker, Tracey (2009). Effect of trauma therapy on mental health professionals. .Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43(4), 373 – 385, DOI: 10.1080/00048670902721079
Helm, Heather M. PhD., LPC. RPTS. (n.d.). Managing vicarious trauma and compassion fatigue. Retrieved from http://www.lianalowenstein.com/artcile_helm.pdf
Izo, Ellie Dr. (2010). Transference and Counter transference in Vicarious Trauma (Video File). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ALng_fH9g-Q
Jaffe, Janet Diamond, Martha O., (2011). Reproductive trauma: Psychotherapy with infertility and pregnancy loss clients. American Psychological Association, 159-177, DOI: 10.1037/12347-008
Jenkins, Sharon Rae & Stephanie, (2002). Secondary Traumatic Stress and Vicarious
Trauma: A Validational Study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(5), 423–432
Landau, Elizabeth, (2009). Treating trauma victims, may cause is own trauma. Retrieved from http://articles.cnn.com/2009-106/health/military.psychiatrists.fort.hood_1_trauma-victims-vicarious-trauma-anxiety-recovery-program?_s=PM:HEALTH
Meichenbaum, Donald Ph.D. (n.d.).Self-Care for Trauma Psychotherapist and Caregivers: Individual, Social and Organizational Intervention. University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; Retrieved from http://www.melissainstitute.org/documents/Meichenbaum_SelfCare_11thconf.pdf
Nelson, Terri Spahn MSSW, LISW. (n.d.). Vicarious trauma: bearing witness to another’s trauma. Retrieved from http://www.uic.edu/orgs/convening/vicariou.htm
Puterbaugh, Doloras T. (2008). Spiritual Evolution of Bereavement Counselors: An Exploratory
Qualitative Study. The American Counseling Association; Counseling and Values, 52(3), 198 – 210
Riviere, Carol & Kurahashi, Yukie. (2003). Counselors face risk of vicarious traumatization, The Report. Health Sciences Association of British Columbia, 24(1)
Rothschild, Babette & Rand, Marjorie (2006).Help For The Helper: The Psychophysiology of Compassion Fatigue and Victorious Trauma. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23(4), 181–183. W.W. Norton and Company, New York, London
Schwartz, Mary C. (1978). Helping the Worker with Counter Transference. National Association of Social Workers, Inc., 23(3), 204
Trippany, Robyn L., White Kress, Victoria E., & Wilcoxon, Allen S. Preventing vicarious trauma: What counselors should know when working with trauma survivors? Journal of Counseling & Development, 82(1), 31-37, 7p
Walker, Moira. (2004). Supervising practitioners working with survivors of childhood abuse: counter transference; secondary traumatization and terror. Psychodynamic Practice, 10(2), 157 – 207, DOI: 10.1080/14753630410001686753

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Amcha Code of Ethics

...(2011), I felt that it was important to touch upon certain sections that I feel could become potential issues for us as counselors. Essay 1. There are many skills needed in order to work with a patient presenting with a co-occurring disorder. According to the American Mental Health Counseling Association (AMHCA) (2011), there are eight skills that we as counselors must center our focus on. They are all very important, yet I chose to focus on us as counselors can demonstrate our skills wisely by utilizing the knowledge we have gained during training. One of the hardest part of counseling clients is trying to discover what exactly is needed to help that client maintain a healthy relationship with others and a balance within themselves. Clients with co-occurring disorders are the most difficult kind of client. We must understand the treatment and clinical management of common co-occurring disorders such as anxiety, depression, PTSD and trauma-related disorders, dissociative disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, psychotic disorders, disruptive behaviors, and mood disorders in combination with substance abuse disorders. We must provide appropriate counseling strategies by demonstrating the ability to modify counseling systems, theories, interventions when necessary and specific techniques that will work with the client. For example, if a client came to a clinic presenting with bipolar disorder and was self-medicating themselves with alcohol. A counselor would......

Words: 1919 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Defeating the Demons Inside: a Study on Individuals Who Have Survived the Long-Term Effects of Bullying

...Defeating the Demons Inside: A Study on Individuals Who Have Survived the Long-Term Effects of Bullying A Research Proposal Presented to Dr. Nymia P. Simbulan Department of Behavioral Sciences College of Arts and Sciences University of the Philippines Manila In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course BS 199.1 (Qualitative Methods in Behavioral Research) Christiani Lumayag Matugas 2011-31444 April 1, 2013 I. Introduction Statement of the Problem and Review of Related Literature The school is a battle field and each child is a lone soldier trying to make his/her way through. Each child will have to defeat a series of exams, scary teachers, lab experiments, physical education classes, crushes, mortal enemies and the like. Most of the time, children will learn from these experiences and mature with the lessons that each of these experiences have taught them. However, there are certain battles that wound all too deeply and do not seem to end. These battles are the battles of bullying. What is Bullying? Bullying is a social and interpersonal problem that involves the repeated, intentional use of aggression against a less powerful other (Whitney & Smith, 1993). Bullying can take different forms, be it direct (e.g., physical aggression), indirect (e.g., exclusion, spreading rumors), or verbal (e.g., name-calling). (Hunter, Mora-Merchan and Ortega, 2004) Children who are victims of bullying are more likely than......

Words: 1957 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Why Is It Important for Nurses to Allow Family Presence During Resuscitation Efforts?

...support why it is important to offer FPDR and establishing policies to do so. The first article by Jensen and Kosowan (2011) addresses cardiac health care professional’s perspectives on FP during CPR. Some opponents in healthcare argue that FPDR would be too traumatic of an experience for families to watch. Family interference, increased staff stress, and legal action on the resuscitation team were also concerns of healthcare professionals. The article reports research done in several Canadian hospitals regarding the beliefs of health care providers on the topic of FPDR. The research found that nurses are more supportive of FPDR than physicians. Research did not support the concerns expressed by health care professionals. Furthermore, families felt it was “their right,” (Kosowan, 2011, p. 25) to be present during resuscitation. Opponents to FPDR agree that policies and procedures being in place would diminish the perceived concerns (Kosowan, 2011, p. 29). The second article opens...

Words: 1332 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Compassion Fatigue

...COMPASSION FATIGUE AMONG HEALTHCARE WORKERS A PROPOSAL PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF UNIVERSITY OF THE VISAYAS CEBU CITY, PHILIPPINES IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN NURSING MAJOR IN NURSING MANAGEMENT BY: CONCHITA BRANZUELA BERGADO CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM INTRODUCTION: Quality of life among healthcare providers will matter on the quality and safety of patient care. Today the proportion of acute patients entering the health care system through emergency departments continues to grow and the number of patients in the Intensive care unit also increasing. In emergency room department, the Emergency medical services (EMS) workers are primary providers of pre-hospital emergency medical care and integral components of disaster response. The potentially hazardous job duties of EMS workers include lifting patients and equipment, treating acute injuries or life-threatening illnesses, handling hazardous chemical and body substances, and participating in the emergency transport of patients in ground and air vehicles. These duties create an inherent risk for EMS worker occupational injuries and illnesses. Healthcare workers in the Emergency medicine has evolved to treat conditions that pose a threat to life and have a significant risk of morbidity. Work-related stressors in which Emergency Department nurses encounter are numerous as a result of......

Words: 9128 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Student

...The Sanity of a Sane Doctor Abstract Suffering from antisocial personality disorder, with an intellectual barrier, no one could break, Hannibal “The cannibal” Lecter will be my patient, I will observe his behavior and try to give an assessment. Through an observation approach, the collected data will consist of, behavior that was observed directly, while indirectly collecting information about the patient, and the consideration of the biological variables that can be observed via advanced technology methods. The purpose of this assessment is to find plausible causes, and possible distal and proximal factors that could be contributors to his behavior. This is the classification of the disorder, not my patient. The suffering, maladaptive, irrationality and unpredictability are certain elements contributing to this abnormality. Mainly focusing on his adolescent years, the contributors in his adult life will not be ignored, focusing on the root of his behavior and trying to manage his irregular manic episodes. Defining exactly what antisocial personality disorder is, with the goal of providing treatment based on theories and/or other doctoral research. Through this method I will answer the questions, When? How? And Why? The Sanity of a Sane Doctor, and the Possible Treatments The distance between insanity and genius is measured only by success - Bruce Feirstein. Antisocial personality disorder is a mental condition in which a person has a long-term......

Words: 2558 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...Introduction Most of the time, physical abuse is not recognize by peoples as a serious problem. Physical abuse occurs when someone physically hurts you, such as by hitting you or throwing something at you. Even if someone only hits you once or doesn't hurt you that badly, it is a big deal. It may be not so serious because it seems they’re not badly hurt, but what the people doesn’t know is they are causing harm, a serious harm to that people they hurt physically.Abuse tends to escalate, putting you at greater risk in the future. Just one incident of being physically hurt by anyone is unacceptable, and you should take steps to stop the abuse. They cause harm in the sense that that even small hurting can cause hidden scars, Hidden scars which are formed by the emotional and psychological wounds. This Hidden scars is manifested by almost all of the people specifically during their teenage years. All parents want a disciplined and well behaved child. However, there are times when a parent loses control or simply has no control over their child. This is when simple parenting crosses the line and becomes emotional abuse. Emotional abuse is elusive. Unlike physical abuse, the people doing it and receiving it may not even know it is happening. It can be more harmful than physical abuse because it can undermine what we think about ourselves. It can cripple all we are meant to be as we allow something untrue to define us. Emotional abuse can happen between parent and child,......

Words: 13520 - Pages: 55

Premium Essay

Factors

...Internet Journal of Criminology © 2014 ISSN 2045 6743 (Online) Male Rape: The Unseen World of Male Rape By Aliraza Javaid1 Abstract This research explores the phenomenon of male rape and how the police recognise it, together with uncovering male rape myths in a local police force. Whilst male rape research is expanding, it was found that the police have a lack of knowledge, understanding, awareness, and specialised training of male rape. Therefore, police officers’ attitudes, ideas, views, perspectives, and beliefs on specific topics pertinent to male rape are discussed. This project also seeks to comprehend gender expectations and stereotypes of men, so as to comprehend the prevalence of male rape, the negligence of male rape, and the under-reporting/recording of male rape. Moreover, because male rape is a part of sexual violence, feminist theory is used as a foundation for this project, since feminism seeks gender equality. Ultimately, this research emphasises the need for the police to adequately manage male rape victims and take male rape seriously, without any negative attitudes, ideas, views, perspectives, and beliefs. 1 MRes Social Sciences www.internetjournalofcriminology.com 1 Internet Journal of Criminology © 2014 ISSN 2045 6743 (Online) Contents Page 1.0 Introduction............................................................................................................3 2.0 Male Rape Victims in the Criminal Justice System..................................

Words: 21192 - Pages: 85

Premium Essay

The Plight of Young Girls Living as Teenage Prostitutes

...to draw local and national attention. The numbers and tragic stories of these young girls lured into this lifestyle for various reasons are beginning to cause society to stop and take notice. Girls as young as eleven years of age are being forced into a lifestyle of prostitution as a means for survival. In order to begin to work on addressing the problem of teen prostitution, it is important to understand the dynamics of this cycle of lifestyle choice today and why it has become so widespread. The community has to come together to address the reasons these young girls are prostituting and determine what are the best ways to successfully begin to rescue them from life on the streets. Who is a Teenage Prostitute? A Review of the Literature Teen...

Words: 5014 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Mehedi

...secure and protected as they are ideally portrayed. The increasing number of street children who work on the streets or beg for alms from pedestrians and motorists belie such an idealized portrayal. Street children, among other things, are the most palpable reminder that all is not well with Filipino children. Reality reveals the many children who are denied even the most minimum of needs like food, love, nurturance, stability, security, and stimulating learning environment that will allow for their healthy development. Many Filipino children are rushed into maturity because early on in their lives, they are forced to contend with difficult problems and to take on adult roles and responsibilities. Media and popular and academic literature, more than any other time, has brought to our attention the plight of children, be they street children or not, who perform adult roles and who are in need of the basic components of a healthy family life. 2 Bautista, Roldan & Garces-Bacsal Reports of child abuse are also on the rise. Often, abused children have to deal, on their own, with the fear and pain brought on by parents, relatives, significant others, or complete strangers. Such realities repudiate Da Silva’s idealized view of children (in Torres 1990), as persons who “needs adult protection...

Words: 49490 - Pages: 198

Premium Essay

Overcoming Coercive Management in Schools

...Introduction The ABC school system is the largest school system in the United States. It serves over one million students in the five boroughs of New York City. It has over 1,700 schools including elementary, middle, junior, and high schools as well as specialized schools for special needs students. It is headed by a city mayor who oversees the system as well as a chancellor. There have been many changes in educational philosophies over the years, including sweeping changes in the curriculum. Many of these changes have originated from the federal No Child Left Behind Legislation (NCLB) legislation to reform educational practices. The main tenet of the change sought to raise reading and math scores on standardized tests. They also included reforms on how teachers are evaluated and how low performing teachers need to be removed. This change has led many principals to struggle with the issues of how to contend with red tape that makes it very difficult if not impossible to remove teachers. In addition they must also fight unions who are struggling to keep their teachers from being dismissed arbitrarily. The issue has become whether or not principals may be using coercive management techniques to persuade teachers to leave. Many principals appear to be engaging in bullying tactics, resulting in a negative work environment that is unconducive to efficiency and impedes the quality of education provided by already overwhelmed instructors. When we examine articles......

Words: 6325 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Study Habits

...PERCEPTIONS OF RURAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS OF THE TRANSFER PROCESS TO A FOUR-YEAR INSTITUTION: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY by ELIZABETH E. SACKSTEDER LACLAIR A DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the College of Education in the Graduate School of The University of Alabama TUSCALOOSA, ALABAMA 2010 Copyright Elizabeth E. Sacksteder LaClair 2010 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ABSTRACT Utilizing the current literature base on rural community colleges, transfer student adjustment, academic advising and articulation issues, the purpose of this research study was to ascertain the adjustment issues and experiences of rural community college students who have the intent to transfer to a four-year baccalaureate degree granting institution. The perceptions these rural community college students have regarding the transfer process are the focus of the study. Students from ten rural community colleges, who participated in the Alabama College Transfer Advising Corps, a project of The University of Alabama and funded by the Jack Kent Cooke Foundation were used in the study. The survey instrument used in this study is a variation of Laanan Transfer Student Questionnaire (L-TSQ). Survey questions were reframed such that those regarding university experiences and the students’ potential transfer to a four-year college/university were treated as reflections on the meditational transition, or transition that has......

Words: 64804 - Pages: 260

Premium Essay

Living It on the Skin: Italian States, Working Illness

...´ NOELLE J. MOLE PRINCETON UNIVERSITY Living it on the skin: Italian states, working illness A B S T R A C T In this article, I examine the codification of an Italian work-related illness caused by mobbing, a type of psychological harassment that emerged at the moment neoliberal policies transformed Italy’s historically protectionist labor market. I trace how the medicalization of mobbing has expanded workers’ access to compensation, resources, and discursive tools for criticizing neoliberal labor conditions, even as it has produced new structures of surveillance. I unravel the neoliberal politics of a state that protects workers’ health yet governs worker–citizens through an apparatus of medical experts. I find that workers’ labor problems are experienced and managed as bodily problems in ways important to remaking Italian citizenship. [neoliberalism, state, labor, biopolitics, citizenship, bodies, Italy] An institution, even an economy, is complete and fully viable only if it is durably objectified . . . in bodies. —Pierre Bourdieu1 It was the spirit of capitalism made flesh. —Upton Sinclair2 n 2003, a new psychophysical disturbance, organizational coercion pathology (disturbi psichici e fisici da costrittivit` organizzativa sul a lavoro), or OCP, became a work-related illness that was insurable by an Italian state public-health institution (Istituto Nazionale per l’Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro [INAIL] 2003).3 Telltale symptoms, often likened to those...

Words: 18731 - Pages: 75

Free Essay

At Risk Asped

...New Era University SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES New Era, Quezon City COMMON PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY STUDENTS “AT RISK” IN A REGULAR CLASS AS PERCEIVED BY GRADE 8 REGULAR AND SPED TEACHERS IN BATASAN HILLS NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL BY Cupido, Luigi T. DR. ESTRELLA N. SAN ANDRES FEBRUARY 22, 2014 Chapter 1 The Problem and It’s Background Special Education is a privilege and a basic human right for any individual students. It is granted for those who are diagnosed with developmental disadvantages and students with special needs. This type of education is progressing so as the discovery of different types of exceptionalities and its spectrums. The wise variety of its type and spectrums helps educators identify the corresponding needs of special education learners. Children with special needs are now being placed in a self-contained class for most public or private schools. Though, there were some students who are disadvantaged or even behind the slow performing ones who are not yet recognized. These types are often labelled by diagnosticians as students “At Risk.” From the term itself, it indicates potential exceptionalities that may possibly arise. The main difficulty that could possibly be anticipated among the so called “At Risk” students is the misleading concepts towards them. Most teachers would take them as regular students and some may call them “slow learners,” “out of......

Words: 6777 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Juvenile Delinquency

...2015 Richard Samante Prof. Martinez 2015 Richard Samante Prof. Martinez Juvenile Delinquency in Manila Juvenile Delinquency in Manila CR-21 CR-21 CHAPTER I Introduction A. Background of the study Delinquents is from the legislatic point of view the minors committing criminal act are not called criminals but delinquents. The persons under eighteen who commit violations of law are called delinquents. The penal codes of almost all the civilized nations make special provisions for the treatment of delinquents in law courts. There is a consensus among criminologists that delinquents should be reformed rather than punished. Earlier, it was mentioned that, throughout most of the world, juvenile offending has been recognized for hundreds of years. It would be logical to wonder exactly how juvenile offenders in historical times were handled. For one thing, as indicated earlier, there were, however, juvenile institutions and other procedures for handling juveniles that were created in America during the 19th (Roseheim et al. 2002). Historical accounts of the development of the juvenile justice system throughout the world indicate that before separate institutions and proceedings for juveniles were established in the 19th, juveniles were often treated as if they were small adults. Even children of royal families in England, for example, were exposed to adult situations, such as sexual activity among adults, and were thought to be ready for adult roles in society if......

Words: 8056 - Pages: 33

Free Essay

Importance of Socialization

...W O M E N ’ S C O M M I S S I O N for refugee women & children w U N TA P P E D P OT E N T I A L : Adolescents affected by armed conflict A review of programs and policies U N TA P P E D P OT E N T I A L : Adolescents affected by armed conflict A review of programs and policies Wo m e n ’s C o m m i s s i o n f o r R e f u g e e Wo m e n & C h i l d r e n N e w Yo r k W O M E N ’ S C O M M I S S I O N for refugee women & children Copyright © January 2000 by Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 1-58030-000-6 Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children 122 East 42nd Street New York, NY 10168-1289 tel. 212.551.3111 or 3088 fax. 212.551.3180 e-mail: wcrwc@intrescom.org www.intrescom.org/wcrwc.html w cover photographs © Rachel K. Jones, Marc Sommers, Sarah Samson, Holly Myers, Anne-Sophie Rosette, International Rescue Committee M I S S I O N S TAT E M E N T The Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children seeks to improve the lives of refugee women and children through a vigorous program of public education and advocacy, and by acting as a technical resource. The Commission, founded in 1989 under the auspices of the International Rescue Committee, is the only organization in the United States dedicated solely to speaking out on behalf of women and children uprooted by armed conflict or persecution. Acknowledgments The Women’s Commission expresses its......

Words: 101041 - Pages: 405