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# Attitude Model

Submitted By mshukla
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An Example of the Original Fishbein Attitude Model (based on lecture material)

Ao = biei

where, Ao = Attitude toward the object (brand) bi = belief about the brand’s possession of the attribute ei = evaluation of the attribute as being good or bad n = there are a limited number (n) of attributes which the person will consider

The following asks a consumer to evaluate these attributes for luxury cars:

|Attribute: |
|Sporty Styling |
|Good Handling/Ride |
|High Cost |
|Great Acceleration |
|Low Repair Frequency |
| |

Use the numbers from the following scale to evaluate each characteristic of luxury cars.

Neither Good
Extremely Moderately Slightly nor Slightly Moderately Extremely
Good Good Good Bad Bad Bad Bad
+3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3

The consumer provides the following responses, which represent ei (an evaluation of the attribute as being good or bad)

|Attribute |Rating (ei) |
|Sporty Styling |+3 |
|Good Handling/Ride |+3 |
|High Cost |-1 |
|Great Acceleration |+3 |
|Low Repair Frequency |+1 |

We then ask the consumer to rate three brands of interest to determine whether the consumer believes each brand possesses each attribute (the bi).

Use the following scale to how likely it is that each luxury card brand possesses the characteristic.

Neither Likely
Extremely Moderately Slightly nor Slightly Moderately Extremely
Likely Likely Likely Unlikely Unlikely Unlikely Unlikely
+3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3

|Attribute |Mercedes SLK |Porsche 911 |Corvette |
|Sporty Styling |+3 |+3 |+2 |
|Good Handling/Ride |+2 |+3 |+2 |
|High Cost |+3 |+3 |+2 |
|Great Acceleration |+1 |+3 |+2 |
|Low Repair Frequency |-1 |-2 |+2 |

To calculate the consumer’s attitude about each brand of car using the Original Fishbein Attitude Model, multiply the attribute evaluations time the brand’s rating and sum for each brand:

Ao = biei

|Attribute |Rating (ei) |Mercedes |biei for |Porsche |biei for |Corvette |biei for |
| | |SLK (bi) |Mercedes |911 (bi) |Porche |(bi) |Corvette |
|Sporty Styling |+3 |+3 | |+2 | |+2 | |
|Good Handling/Ride |+3 |+2 | |+3 | |+2 | |
|High Cost |-1 |+3 | |+3 | |+2 | |
|Great Acceleration |+3 |+1 | |+3 | |+2 | |
|Low Repair Frequency |+1 |-1 | |-2 | |+2 | |
|Ao = | | | | | | | |

Did you get the following Attitude scores?
Mercedes SLK = 14
Porsche 911 = 19
Corvette = 18

Click here to download a spreadsheet with the calculations http://www.personal.kent.edu/%7Elmarks/MKTG35035/attitudeexample.xls An Example of the Extended Fishbein Attitude Model (the Theory of Reasoned Action)

This material is covered in the class lecture and the basics are in the text (see pages 246 and 247).

The Extended Fishbein Model is: B BI = w1Ab + w2 SN

where,
B is Overt Behavior (e.g., the purchase), which is approximately equal to
BI or Behavioral Intentions, and

Ab = Attitude about the behavior (the act of purchasing a brand, for example) = biei (beliefs about the consequences of the behavior; evaluation of those consequences as good or bad), and

SN represent Subjective Norms, or

SN = NBj x MCj

NB are normative beliefs (what we think others would want us to do),
MC represents our motivation to comply with their wishes

Finally, w1 and w2 represent the weight given the Ab and SN components.

Let’s assume we are interested in evaluating consumer’s attitudes about laptop computers. We determine that the relevant factors that influence purchase are Provides Good Support, Screen Size, Weight, Battery Life, and Price.

Keeping in mind the rationale behind the Fishebein Extended Model, we ask the consumer to think about purchasing a laptop for the Fall semester.
First, we establish the ei scores:

Please use the numbers from the following scale to evaluate each of the following consequences of buying a laptop computer for the Fall semester:

Neither Good
Extremely Moderately Slightly nor Slightly Moderately Extremely
Good Good Good Bad Bad Bad Bad
+3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3

|Consequence |Rating (ei scores) |
|Provides Good Support |+3 |
|Has a 16” screen |-1 |
|Does not weigh more than 5 pounds |+2 |
|Has a battery that lasts at least 4 hours |+1 |
|Costs less than \$1000 |+3 |

NOTE: Each of the above statements is a CONSEQUENCE of buying the laptop. So, the respondent is providing you with an evaluation of the consequences as being "good" or "bad."

Next, we determine whether the consumer feels brands of interest to us will or will not provide the consequences of interest (the bi scores).

Please use this scale to indicate how likely it is that buying each laptop will give you the results indicated.

Neither Likely
Extremely Moderately Slightly nor Slightly Moderately Extremely
Likely Likely Likely Unlikely Unlikely Unlikely Unlikely
+3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3

Buying the _____________ laptop for this Fall semester will:

| |HP Pavillion |IBM/Lenovo Think Pad |Dell XPS |
|Consequence | | | |
|Provide Good Support |+2 |+1 |+3 |
|Give me a 16” screen |-1 |-2 |+1 |
|Not weigh more than 5 pounds |+2 |+3 |+2 |
|Give me a battery that lasts at least 4|+1 |+2 |+2 |
|hours | | | |
|Cost less than \$1000 |+1 |+2 |-3 |

NOTE: The respondent is now providing you with an indication of his or her beliefs about the consequences of buying each laptop this Fall.

Next, we want to determine the social influences on the purchase. We would need to know who the consumer would likely be influenced by in order to ask these questions.

Please use this scale to indicate how each person feels about you taking each vacation: +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3
Definitely Probably Might No Might Probably Definitely Should Should Consider Opinion Not Should Should Not Not

Buying the following brand of laptop for this Fall semester: HP IBM/Lenovo Dell XPS Pavillion Think Pad Roommate __+2_ __+1_ __+3__ Special Friend __-1_ __+2_ __+3__ Dad __+1_ __+3_ __-2__

Note: The above scores are the NBs (the Normative Beliefs)

Now, we see how “motivated to comply” they are with each person……

How much do you want to do what each person thinks you should do?

Not at all Slightly Moderately Strongly 0 1 2 3

Roommate ___+1_
Special Friend ___+3_
Dad ___+2_

Note: These are the MCs (the Motivation to Comply)

Finally, we need to obtain an indication of how much weight to put on each factor. In a research study, these would be “beta weights” from a regression analysis. For this example, we ask the following question:

When people purchase laptop computers, there are two important influences on their decision about what laptop to buy. What they personal think about each laptop, and what people who are important to them think. Please divide 100 points between these two factors to indicate their importance in your decision about what trip to buy (e.g., 80-20, 35-65, 50-50, etc.)

My own beliefs _____ Other peoples' beliefs _____

For this example, let’s assume that person responds .8 for their own beliefs and .2 for other people’s.

You now have all the information you need to calculate the Behavioral Intentions score for the consumer.

Ab= biei and SN = NBj x MCj

Calculate Ab

|Consequence |Rating (ei) |HP Pavillion |biei for HP |IBM/Lenovo Think |biei for IBM |Dell XPS |biei for Dell|
| | | | |Pad | | | |
|Provide Good Support |+3 |+2 | |+1 | |+3 | |
|Give me a 16” screen |-1 |-1 | |-2 | |+1 | |
|Not weigh more than 5 |+2 |+2 | |+3 | |+2 | |
|pounds | | | | | | | |
|Give me a battery that |+1 |+1 | |+2 | |+2 | |
|lasts at least 4 hours | | | | | | | |
|Cost less than \$1000 |+3 |+1 | |+2 | |-3 | |
|Ab = | | | | | | | |

Calculate SN:

| |MC |HP |NB*MC for HP|IBM/Lenovo |NB*MC for |Dell XPS NB |NB*MC for Dell|
| | |Pavillion NB | |Think Pad NB |IBM | | |
|Roommate |+1 |+2 | |+1 | |+3 | |
|Special Friend |+3 |-1 | |+2 | |+3 | |
|Dad |+2 |+1 | |+3 | |-2 | |
|SN = | | | | | | | |

Calculate the BI score

| |W1 |Ab |W1*Ab |W2 |SN |W2*SN |BI = Sum of |
| | | | | | | |W1*Ab and |
| | | | | | | |W2*SN |
|HP | | | | | | | |
|Pavillion | | | | | | | |
|IBM/Lenovo | | | | | | | |
|Think Pad | | | | | | | |
|Dell XPS | | | | | | | |

-----------------------
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