Free Essay

Grade Inflation: C Is the New a

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By sabasorona
Words 1170
Pages 5
Grade Inflation: C is the new A
Sabas Orona Jr.
Del Mar College
Regina Weir
March 23, 2015

Grade Inflation: C is the new A
Have you ever wondered why your grade has been different from a friend or classmates’ when you both have studied the same material in the same class? Could it be that one of you is a better student or that your instructor is participating in grade inflation? Hopefully by the end of this paper you will have a better understanding of this growing phenomenon.
Merriam-Websters dictionary (Merriam-Webster, 2015) defines grade inflation as a rise in the assignment of a grade that previously would have received a lower one. There have been some studies in the past few years regarding grade inflation in American universities and colleges and the affects it might be having on a student’s grade point average (GPA) and on the institutions grading system itself (Abbott, 2008) (Jewell & McPherson, 2012) (Miller, 2014).
Some studies have shown that the trend of grade inflation started in the 1960’s (Jewell & McPherson, 2012). A popular theory is that the Vietnam War, which was highly unpopular at the time, played a major role in grade inflation (Miller, 2014). It is believed that sympathetic college professors gave their students higher grades to keep them from being drafted into the military. By having the students keep a higher GPA the students were then able to keep their draft deferments, thus allowing them to avoid the draft and prevent them from being deployed to Vietnam (Miller, 2014). After the Vietnam War the average GPA seemed to stabilize itself for a few years.
However the trend of rising GPA’s started to climb again in the 1980’s and the trend has not gone down since then. The average GPA has risen steadily every decade an average of 0.15% (Jewell & McPherson, 2012) since the 60’s. Other studies have also shown that a student’s GPA in the 1950’s was on average a 2.52 (Miller, 2014) compared to students after the 2006-2007 school year were a student’s average GPA was a 3.11 (Miller, 2014). The theory of rising GPA’s due to grade inflation seems to grab some traction when compared to the trend of the average GPA rising every decade since the 1960’s.
The trend of a higher GPA average also seem to be greater at private universities than it is at public universities and colleges. A theory for this is that private universities are more likely to give their students a higher GPA in the assumption that more successful firms and companies will recruit their students for jobs and position that tend to pay higher for corporate positions within a company (Jewell & McPherson, 2012). Thus making the private university more appealing to future students wishing to attend their campus.
Another trend that seems to be contributing to the rise in grade inflation is the practice of student evaluations of teaching (SET’s) were it is used for the purpose of promotion, tenure, and merit evaluations (Jewell & McPherson, 2012). It is believed that non-tenured professors and instructors are more likely to give a better grade than what the student deserves for fear of retaliation (Jewell & McPherson, 2012). They assume that if a below average grade is given to a student then the student will in turn give a poor rating to the institution about their experience with the class and the instructor thus preventing an instructor from being promoted or being awarded tenure at the institution (Jewell & McPherson, 2012).
In light of these studies, there are certain institutions trying to combat the practice of grade inflation and others that refuse to even address this growing trend. A couple of arguments that academic establishments are making is that today’s students are smarter than the ones from decades before and that todays students are more technologically advanced than their previous alum’s (Miller, 2014). However standardized test scores do not support this hypothesis. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) have only risen 1.6% in 2 decades from 1990 to 2000 which would contradict those 2 popular arguments made by most academic entities ("Comparing States and Schools," 2010).
Another argument being bounced around is that today’s students which are known as the “millennial generation” have a sense of entitlement. That they feel they are entitled to an A when in reality it should be a B or C+ (Miller, 2014). College students are being called trophy students, due to the practice that you would have received a trophy just for showing up to a sporting event or school function during their younger years. This sense of entitlement then makes today’s student feel that they are entitled to an A just for paying and showing up for class and pressuring the instructor for the grade that they think they deserve and not the grade that they actually earned (Miller, 2014). This also coincides with the popular belief that a B is no longer good enough to secure a high paying position in a company (Miller, 2014).
After reading the studies and theory’s on grade inflation, most of it is clear that these reference articles were written using meta-analysis research. It is my assumption that the Independent Variable is the grading system and that the GPA is the Dependent Variable. So the main finding after reading all the reference articles is that there is a growing development in grade inflation and that academic institutions are in no hurry to change these rising trends.
One of the main implications of instructors passing out inflated grades are that students will not get the full benefit of a proper education and just be allowed to pass the class with an A and a GPA that was not deserving or representing of their true grade. One of the most important things I have come away from with these articles and this essay would be the question, have I ever gotten one of these trumped up grades and how would I know. So if I got an A for an assignment where I did not do my best, what would be the incentive for me to do better on the next assignment? So if I receive a C or a B then it should make me work harder to get an A on any future assignments.

2010 College Bound Seniors Results Underscore Importance of Academic Rigor. (2010). Retrieved March 23, 2015, from
Abbott, W. M. (2008, January/February). The Politics of a Case Study. Change, 32-37.
Jewell, R. T., & McPherson, M. A. (2012, March). Instructor-Specific Grade Inflation: Incentives, Gender, and Ethnicity. Social Science Quarterly, 93.
Merriam-Webster. (2015). grade inflation. In. Retrieved from
Miller, G. (2014). Grade Inflation, Gatekeeping, and Social Work Education: Ethics and Perils. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics, 11, 12-22.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...1524-6345 An Analysis of the Study Time-Grade Association Orlando J. Olivares Department of Psychology Bridgewater State College Abstract Our intuition, and perhaps our experience, suggests that study time should be positively associated with grades. However, the study time-grade association literature has provided inconsistent findings: some researchers have found a positive association, others a negative association, and yet others no association between study time and grades. The present research sought to better understand the nature of the study time-grade association by examining the effects of student, teacher and course characteristics on study time, grades, and the study time-grade association. Results show that study time and grades were inversely associated (r = -.19). Regression analyses indicate that grade inflation was the best predictor of study time; that is, as grade inflation increased study time decreased. Course difficulty was the best predictor of grades; as perceptions of course difficulty increased expected grades decreased. And, course difficulty, grade inflation and student cognitive ability moderated the study time-grade association. Thus, data suggest that the study time-grade association may be spurious. Implications for future research are discussed. Keywords: study time-grade association, spurious, moderators, motivation, facilitating conditions Introduction The study time-grade literature is scant (Rau &......

Words: 6244 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

High School Dropout Rate

...An increasing high school dropout rate is due to the fact that our education system is a grade-based system, that uses standardized tests to measure ones intelligence and achievements. Students who don’t measure up as well as others in terms of their grades, begin to quit at an earlier stage in education, with the belief they aren’t good enough to succeed in further education. With education inflation, the grade standards and pressure for students, are at a constant rise, which makes it more difficult for students to excel. For example, if a student was once a B grade student, they could easily be downgraded to a low C, because of the increasing competitive rivalry amongst students. As shown in Figure 3. There is a large percentage of students...

Words: 1195 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Qe2 - Was It Necessary to Stimulate Economic Growth

...ABSTRACT “QE 2” – Was it necessary to stimulate economic growth or is it sowing the seeds for undesirable levels of inflation in the years ahead? How would your view impact your investment strategy? | Kunal MishraRutgers Business School | Introduction to Quantitative Easing (QE): Quantitative easing (QE) is an unconventional monetary policy tool used by some central banks to stimulate the national economy when conventional monetary policy has become ineffective. In the late 2008 Federal Reserve pursued this unconventional policy of purchasing large quantities of long-term securities, including Treasuries, Agency bonds, and Agency Mortgage Backed Securities. The stated objective of quantitative easing is to reduce long-term interest rates in order to spur economic activity. A central bank implements quantitative easing by purchasing financial assets from banks and other private sector businesses with new money that is created electronically. This action increases the excess reserves of the banks, and also raises the prices of the financial assets bought, which further lowers their yield. The recent quantitative easing policy targeted at credit easing in the business and household sector, so that the increase in reserves is a by-product rather than an objective of monetary policy. As a part of its expansionary monetary policy the Fed has maintained a lower short-term market interest rate through the buying of short-term government bonds, using a combination of lending......

Words: 4527 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Bunyan Lumber

...harvest the trees are 20, 25, 30, and 35 years from today. They are currently 20 years old today, so they will be between 40 and 55 years of age when we plan to harvest. The longer we wait to harvest the trees, the more product we can get from the growth of the trees, and the expected grade of the logs improves over time. Benefits to waiting to harvest the forest are: increased amount of time to grow, increased amount of time to improve the expected timber grade of the trees, and the value of the lumber is expected to increase with the rate of inflation which is estimated to be 3.7%. Disadvantages to waiting to harvest the forest include: costs increase at the rate of inflation, the clear-cut harvest contribution increases 3.2% annually, and most importantly the time value of money. For the following, please refer to the attached spreadsheet, Bunyan Lumber, LLC.xls. • Figures 1 and 2 include information provided from Bunyan Lumber, LLC • Figure 3 shows the amount of MBF per acre per grade. This can be calculated using the information provided in Figure 2. For example, the amount of 1P lumber we can expect 30 years from today is 9.4MBF per acre x 17%. Cell B13 x Cell C 13 provides this answer. • Figure 4 provides the value of the expected lumber in each year. This is found using the answers from Figure 3 multiplied by information provided from the text shown in figure 1. • Figure 5 adjusts our expected value of the proceeds for the...

Words: 878 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Development Research

...ECONOMICS EXAMINATION GUIDELINES GRADE 12 2014 These guidelines consist of 25 pages. Copyright reserved Please turn over Economics 2 Examination Guidelines DBE/2014 INDEX PAGE 3 1. INTRODUCTION 2. ASSESSMENT IN GRADE 12 2.1 Format of the question papers 2.2 Detail of question papers 4 4 4 3. CONTENT 6 4. CONCLUSION Copyright reserved 25 Please turn over Economics 1. 3 Examination Guidelines DBE/2014 INTRODUCTION The Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) for Economics outlines the nature and purpose of the subject Economics. This guides the philosophy underlying the teaching and assessment of the subject in Grade 12. The purpose of these Examination Guidelines is to: • • Provide clarity on the depth and scope of the content to be assessed in the Grade 12 National Senior Certificate (NSC) Examination in Economics. Assist teachers to adequately prepare learners for the examinations. This document deals with the final Grade 12 external examinations. It does not deal in any depth with the School-Based Assessment (SBA). This guideline should be read in conjunction with: • • • The National Curriculum Statement (NCS) Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS): Economics The National Protocol of Assessment: An addendum to the policy document, the National Senior Certificate: A qualification at Level 4 on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), regarding the National Protocol for Assessment (Grades R–12) The national policy......

Words: 5874 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay


...ECONOMICS 201: PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS Fall Term 2015 2:00-3:15 PM Mondays and Wednesdays Room 1090 CASL CRN # 11014 Section 004 Carol Hogan Office Hours: 10:00-10:45 AM 2190 Social Sciences Building Mondays and Wednesdays, 1:00- 313-436-9181 1:45 PM Mondays and Wednesdays, 5:00-5:45 PM Mondays, and by appointment |ECON 201 - Prin: Macroeconomics | |Together with ECON 202, this course serves to introduce the student to the basic ideas and concepts of modern economic analysis, and applies| |them to current economic problems, policies and issues. The focus of this course is on macroeconomics: income and wealth, employment, and | |prices at the national level in the United States economy. It is recommended that students take ECON 201 before ECON 202. MATH 105 is highly| |recommended but not required. (F,W,S). | |ECON 201 - Prin: Macroeconomics | |Together with ECON 202, this course serves to introduce the student to the basic ideas and concepts of modern economic analysis, and applies| |them to current economic problems, policies and issues. The focus of this course is on macroeconomics:......

Words: 1944 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Grading System Rationale

...EDUCATION Tweet students grades teachers learning ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Search All U.S. Universities Bottom of Form ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Bottom of Form SCHOOL Thomas R. Guskey HIGHER EDUCATION Howard R. Pollio SCHOOL Few issues have created more controversy among educators than those associated with grading and reporting student learning. Despite the many debates and multitudes of studies, however, prescriptions for best practice remain elusive. Although teachers generally try to develop grading policies that are honest and fair, strong evidence shows that their practices vary widely, even among those who teach at the same grade level within the same school. In essence, grading is an exercise in professional judgment on the part of teachers. It involves the collection and evaluation of evidence on students' achievement or performance over a specified period of time, such as nine weeks, an academic semester, or entire school year. Through this process, various types of descriptive information and measures of students' performance are converted into grades or marks that summarize students' accomplishments. Although some educators distinguish between grades and marks, most consider these terms synonymous. Both imply a set of symbols, words, or numbers that are used to designate different levels of achievement or performance. They might be letter grades such as A, B, C, D, and F; symbols such as...

Words: 6235 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Fina 411

...CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY John Molson School of Business - Department of Finance Portfolio Management - FINA 411/2/A, C Course Outline – Fall 2014 Instructor: Dr. Abraham I. Brodt Office: MB 12.215 Tel: 848-2424-2997 Fax: 848-4500 E-mail: [SUBJECT: FINA 411 …….] Classes: FINA 411/2A Mondays 11:45 - 14:30 [MB1.437] FINA 411/2C Wednesdays 11:45 - 14:30 [MB5.255] Office Hours: Mondays and Wednesdays 15:30 -- 16:30 [Please e-mail me first to confirm] and by appointment COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course focuses on modern investment theory and its application to the management of entire portfolios. It will consist of lectures, discussions of cases and articles, and video presentations. Topics include: a) construction of optimal asset portfolios using techniques such as the single index model, b) extensions of the capital asset pricing model: theory and tests; example, the zero-beta model, c) criteria for evaluation of investment performance, d) active vs. passive portfolio management, e) investment strategies. The Formula Growth Investment Centre Lab will be used to demonstrate the use of specialized investment software. Computer exercises are assigned to illustrate the application of the theory. Prerequisites: FINA 380 or 385; FINA 390 or 395. LEARNING OBJECTIVES To understand the theory and practice of Portfolio Management for Individuals and Institutions, e.g. Endowments, Mutual Funds, Pension Plans, etc. ...

Words: 1579 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Guillermo Furniture Capital Budget Recommendation

...Guillermo Furniture Capital Budget Recommendation Kendall Nicholson University of Phoenix Managerial Accounting and Legal Aspects of Business ACC/543 Curtis Brooks April 23, 2012 Guillermo Furniture Capital Budget Recommendation Guillermo Furniture is on the verge of making an important business decision. Increased competition and rising costs have shrunk its profits considerably. Although many of its smaller competitors are merging with larger corporation, Guillermo does not consider this a viable option. Guillermo Furniture must choose between upgrading to a high-tech computer controlled laser lathe that reduces labor costs dramatically and using its distribution channels to help a competitor to market its products. This option would result in Guillermo becoming more of a distribution network than a manufacturing company. Guillermo also has a patented process for coating its furniture. The flame retardant portion of this process is potentially profitable, but the finished coating is not as desired. Capital Budget Evaluation Techniques Several techniques are available to Guillermo to use for making a decision on which course of action is best. One technique is the net present value (NPV) technique. This technique compares the present values of future cash inflows against the initial cost and cash outflows of a capital investment. In this case, the future inflows of cash must be compared with the interest rate that Guillermo could receive on the......

Words: 1044 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...accrued interest C. bid price D. average of the bid and ask price   2. Sinking funds are commonly viewed as protecting the _______ of the bond.  A. issuer B. underwriter C. holder D. dealer   3. A collateral trust bond is _______.  A. secured by other securities held by the firm B. secured by equipment owned by the firm C. secured by property owned by the firm D. unsecured   4. A mortgage bond is _______.  A. secured by other securities held by the firm B. secured by equipment owned by the firm C. secured by property owned by the firm D. unsecured   5. A debenture is _________.  A. secured by other securities held by the firm B. secured by equipment owned by the firm C. secured by property owned by the firm D. unsecured   6. Bonds issued in the U.S. are __________ and most bonds issued overseas are ___________.  A. bearer bonds; registered bonds B. registered bonds; bearer bonds C. straight bonds; convertible bonds D. puttable bonds; callable   7. Floating rate bonds have a __________ that is adjusted with current market interest rates.  A. maturity date B. coupon payment date C. coupon rate D. dividend yield   8. Inflation-indexed Treasury securities are commonly called ____.  A. PIKs B. CARs C. TIPS D. STRIPS   9. When discussing bonds, convexity relates to the _______.  A. shape of the bond price curve with respect to interest rates B. shape of the yield curve with respect to maturity C. slope......

Words: 9088 - Pages: 37

Free Essay

Dividend Policy

...Stern School of Business New York University Cases in Financial Management B40.2345 Tony Marciano KMC 9-87 First Class Assignment For the first class meeting, I will expect you to prepare the INTEL case in your course packet. You should use the detailed questions given in the course packet to organize your thoughts and analysis about the case. Our class discussion will cover the issues raised by the questions, i.e.: (i) What capital structure makes sense? (ii) What would be the best way to disburse cash? (iii) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative considered by management? In addition to reading and analyzing the Intel case, you should come to class with a one to two page memorandum that summarizes your analysis. You may team up with one or two classmates and hand in one memorandum for the group. (I.e., I will accept a memorandum with up to, but not more than, three names on it.) Stern School of Business New York University Cases in Corporate Finance Marciano Tony Course Syllabus TENTATIVE I. Course Materials A. Packet I (Required): 1. Syllabus 2. Assignments 3. Cases 4. Readings B. Text (Very Highly Recommended but probably have it already): Brealey Myers Allen, Principles of Corporate Finance, McGraw Hill. (BM) You may already have this text. C. There will be some miscellaneous handouts during the course. AND THERE ARE FILES ON BLACKBOARD WHICH CONTAIN SPREADSHEETS FOR THE CASES WE......

Words: 4432 - Pages: 18

Free Essay


...conflict between grade and learning. Students face dilemma while giving priority to learning over grades and I expect them to end up giving more priority to grades. Now, the question is why I have been so pessimistic about their will to learn. I have been studying in NSU for nearly two and a half years and till now, all the conversations I heard is related to grades. Before taking a course, students ask about the most liberal faculty who takes the course. Do they follow books or slides? Do they take make up exams? Do they curve the grades? I mean the word learning is all that is missing. Nobody feels the anticipation of doing something new in a course. Nobody is thrilled to learn something new or to explore themselves. All that matters is doing the course with least possible effort and a liberal faculty who gives good grades. From the beginning of my life at NSU, I have been wondering why grades and learning cannot go side by side. Why do students have to face dilemmas between them? It has to be the complex grading policy of NSU which does not let students have enough space to think about what they learn and keep them busy fighting to get good grades. Students never get to come out of the dilemma even after fighting hard for grades. What keeps them chasing is whether their grades acts as a mirror of what they have learnt so far or not. If they fail to keep the knowledge after doing the courses, their grades would barely carry any value in future. So, grades and learning......

Words: 3396 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

International Finance

...your exam. Grades for essay questions, and comments from your instructor, are in the "Details" section below. | Date Taken: | 4/24/2014 | Time Spent: | 3 h , 29 min , 44 secs | Points Received: | 290 / 300  (96.7%) | | Question Type: | # Of Questions: | # Correct: | Multiple Choice | 10 | 8 | Short | 4 | N/A | Essay | 8 | N/A | | | Grade Details - All Questions | Page:   | 1  2  3  | Question 1. | Question : | (TCO A) Which is not true with respect to spot market liquidity? | |   | Student Answer: | The more willing buyers and sellers there are, the more liquid a market is. |   | | If a currency is illiquid, an MNC is typically able to quickly purchase that currency at a reasonable exchange rate. |   | | A currency's liquidity affects the ease with which an MNC can obtain or sell that currency. |   | | The spot markets for heavily traded currencies, such as the Japanese yen, are very liquid. | | |   | Comments: | | | | Question 2. | Question : | (TCO A) The U.S. dollar is not ever used as a medium of exchange in | |   | Student Answer: | any Latin American countries. |   | | industrialized countries outside the United States. |   | | Eastern European countries where foreign exchange restrictions exist. |   | | None of the above | | |   | Comments: | | | | Question 3. | Question : | (TCO B) Because there are a variety of factors in addition to inflation that......

Words: 2460 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Understanding Fixed Interest in a Portfolio

...Understanding Fixed Interest in a Portfolio Fixed interest securities should play a crucial defensive role in a balanced investment portfolio, providing predictable, regular income and acting as a foil against the losses made on equity holdings during times of economic downturn. However, a poorly constructed defensive allocation will fail in meeting those objectives in times of market turmoil, as demonstrated in recent years. Not all assets that have been labelled fixed income are “true to label”, and furthermore, not even all bonds are made equal. Advisers need to be aware that some are inherently much more risky than others, and others are just not fit for purpose if the objective is to create a safe, predictable source of income that also diversifies a portfolio’s equity risk. FIXED INTEREST/BONDS – A DEFINITION Broadly, a bond can be defined as any debt instrument issued by a government/quasi-government entity or company/special purpose vehicle. In effect a bond is a commoditised, tradable loan where an investor provides capital in exchange for a legally enforceable promise by the issuer to pay the investor regular interest over a fixed period of time and principal at maturity. Naturally, the ability to enforce payment will be a function of the solvency of the borrower. Therefore, assessing credit quality is vital in fixed interest investing. High quality issuers generally fund at lower yields whereas higher yields are paid by issuers of lower credit quality due to...

Words: 3242 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Crisis of Capital

...c o r p o r a t e f i n a n c e DECEMBER 2008 Why the crisis hasn’t shaken the cost of capital The cost of capital hasn’t increased so far in the downturn—and didn’t in past recessions. Richard Dobbs, Bin Jiang, and Timothy M. Koller The cost of capital for companies reflects the attitudes of investors toward risk—specifically, the reward they expect for taking risks. If they become more averse to risk, companies have difficulty raising capital and may need to cancel or defer some investments or to forgo some mergers and acquisitions. So it’s understandable that the current financial crisis has many executives concerned about what the price of risk—the cost of capital—will mean for their strategic decisions in the near term. Yet our analysis finds no evidence that the long-term price of risk has increased over its historical levels—even though short-term capital is difficult to obtain. Anyone with a longer-term view won’t find this surprising. At the peak of the tech bubble of 2000, when the media were awash with suggestions that the cost of capital had permanently declined, a deeper analysis suggested that it was remarkably stable—and has been for the past 40 years.1 Obviously, for companies that are concerned about survival and having difficulty raising capital, its cost is clearly irrelevant. We realize some companies just don’t have access to new capital, period. Yet for companies that have more of it than they need to survive—either from internally......

Words: 1462 - Pages: 6