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Phil 201 Study Guide 1


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Study Guide: Lesson 1
What is Philosophy?

Lesson Overview

Welcome to this introductory course in philosophy. For our first lesson, we are going to examine the question: What is philosophy? There are 4 ways you can get to know what a discipline is: define it, describe it, contrast and compare it with other disciplines, and finally experience it. In this first lesson, we will aim to accomplish the first 3 of these activities. The rest of the course will be an exercise in experiencing philosophy.


View and take notes of the presentation, “Misconceptions about Philosophy”.

Read and take notes from chapter 1 of Prelude to Philosophy: An Introduction for Christians, “What is Philosophy?” As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions: • List 4 reasons students often presuppose a low view of philosophy. o They think you have to be super intelligent to do philosophy o Most students study it late in their academic development o Most people do not think philosophy is practical o They do not know what it is or how it can benefit them • Know Socrates’ quote: What is the unexamined life? What did he mean when he said it wasn’t worth living? o Socrates was saying that the unexamined life is when people go through the motions of life without making the effort to reflect and think about what life is about. When Socrates says the unexamined life is not worth living, he is saying that we are not living the life we were created to live. To live a less than fulfilled life. • Know the etymology of the word “philosophy.” o Philosophy is a combination of two terms in greek: phileo and sopho. Phileo is a term for “love” Sophos is the word for wisdom. • Know the working definition of “philosophy” and explain each of its elements. o Philosophy is the critical examination of our foundational beliefs concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, and truth, and our moral and social values. • List and explain each of the 6 characteristics under the description of philosophy. o The relationship between philosophy and facts-philosophers are generaly more interested in what lies behind the facts, their meanings, significance, and veracity, than in the facts themselves. o The importance of method in philosophical investigation-First order discipline is a field that studies reality directly like Biology. A second oder discipline is a field that studies that methods and presuppositions of first-order disciplines. Second order disciplines are not interested in the conclusion but rather the means used to arrive at the conclusion. o One of the primary tasks of philosophy is clarification- philosophy is interested in finding the truth, and clear thinking is a key ingredient in that search. o Philosophy examines and evaluiates everything. Nothing is taken for granted. Pg.33 o Philosophy is usually concerned with foundational issues that have been perennial throughout the history of humankind. Pg.38 o Philosophy often appeals to systems of principles or guidelines regarded to be true. Pg.41 • Contrast and compare philosophy with religion, science, and art. How are they different and how are they similar? o Philosophy and religion are different in how they conduct the search for their truths about the ultimate. Religion usually appeals to some authoritative revelation to discover truths about the ultimate. While philosophy uses rational inquiry in attempting to understand the ultimate. Philosophers are suspicious of any book claiming to be authoritative. Theology is the study of God and philosophical reasoning is one of the tools employed by theologians. Religion is also incorporated into spiritual disciplines like praying and meditating. While philosophy does not have this spiritual dimension.

o Philosophy and science ▪ Both use observation and appeal to evidence to support their conclusions. ▪ Science generally examines the part of reality experienced with senses ▪ Philosophy extends outside physical reality to what lies beyond and behind it ▪ Philosophy deals with second order questions about disciplines like science. ▪ Science deals with first order questions about reality. o Philosophy and Art o Artists use their medium to express philosophical ideas o Art is concerned mostly with structure o Philosophy is concerned more with content • Explain the value of experiential knowledge in distinction to propositional knowledge. o Propositional knowledge consists of beliefs that can be formulated ad conveyed in propositions. Math, science, and history come from this form of knowledge. Experiential knowledge is knowledge gained through experiencing something. It can be conveyed through propositions


Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts:

|The unexamined life-going through the motions, not thinking about what|Presupposition - beliefs that people do not usually think about or |
|life is about |try to prove. |
|The rational animal-humans |First-order discipline-a field that studies reality directly |
|Normative claim-a claim about some action persons ought to do like not|Second-order discipline- a field that studies the methods ands |
|lie |presuppositions of first order disciplines |
|Wisdom-knowledge applied |Ambiguous- open to more than one interpretation |
|Philosophy- Philosophy is the critical examination of our foundational|Vague- uncertain or indefinite |
|beliefs concerning the nature of reality, knowledge, and truth, and |Worldview- a philosophy of life |
|our moral and social values. |Scientism-examining the part of reality experienced with senses. |
|Critical examination- analytical examination |Propositional knowledge-consists of beliefs that can be formulated an |
|Clarification-to determine what something means |conveyed in propositions |
|Justification-is this true. Are these good reasons to believe that it |Experiential knowledge-knowledge gained through experiencing |
|is true |something. |
|Evaluation-determines the value or significance of an idea | |
|Foundational beliefs-a belief may be defined as an idea or concept one| |
|accepts or affirms as true. | |

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