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Chapter 1

Swatch # 1 – Denim


Denim is durable twill woven with colored (usually blue) warp and white filling threads; it is also woven in colored stripes. The name is said to have originated in French serge de Nimes. The word comes from the name of a sturdy fabric called serge. Denim was originally called serge de Nimes, it was then soon shortened to Denim. Denim is yard-dyed and mill-finished and is usually all-cotton, although considerable quantities are of a cotton-synthetic fiber mixture. Decades of use in the clothing industry, especially in manufacture of overalls and trousers were worn for heavy labour such as construction workers and electrical workers. Denim has demonstrated denim’s durability. This quality also made denim serviceable for leisurewear in the late 20th Century.

Denim is a rugged cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two or more warp fibers. This produces the familiar diagonal ribbing identifiable on the reverse of the fabric, which distinguishes denim from cotton duck. It is a twill-weave woven fabric that uses different colors for the warp and weft. One color is predominant on the fabric surface. Because of this twill weave, it means the fabric is very strong.

I believe Denim is the most amazing fabric out there it’s versatile, it’s tough, its durable,, its easy to work with, its fashionable, its warm I mean I can go one with how great denim is. I mean everyone owns denim. Once before it was only worn by workers and it was popular because of the durability and tough texture. In1800’s American gold miners wanted clothes that were strong and did not tear easily. In 1930’s Cowboys often wore jeans in the movies. This made become very popular. In 1940’s fewer jeans were made due to WW2. In 1950’s Denim became very popular with young people. It was a symbol of teenage rebellion. In the 1960’s and 70’s manufacturers started to make different styles of jeans to match the 60’s fashions which included embroidered jeans, painted jeans, psychedelic jeans etc, these were a huge part of the fashion and culture. In the 1980’s jeans became a very high fashion clothing. Famous fashion designers like Gucci started making jeans, with their own labels on them. This meant jeans had lost their appeal as a workers fabric now and were classed as a very fashionable item of clothing to own. By this time Denim was still being advertise in magazines such as Vogue but it had different finishes.

Now that denim is such a major part of our lives, many like myself love to create the fading effect and worn look.

Chapter # 2

Swatch # 10 – Linen

Linen is a woven fabric made from the fibers of flax plants, and it is one of the oldest and most expensive textiles in the world. The fabric is perhaps most commonly used in clothing. It is prized for its lightweight, cool feel even in hot weather, and people also tend to like it crisp, professional look. The material is usually off-white color, but the fibers tend to take dye well and as a result can often be found in a wide range of colors. It was discovered by weavers in ancient culture that flax fibrous is tough stem and it could be stripped and converted into tough, durable threads that resist moisture, though the refining process was and still remain some what time consuming. The fabric is also known to be used in curtains and pillow coverings made of this material often a polished look to a room. Why? They are used for linens, because it’s manufactured material and has a smooth flawless finish. The weave is very tight and the fabric should have a consistent sheen and thickness. Textiles that are woven on lower-quality machines or that come from inferior flax plants may have a bumpier finish thanks to what are known as “slubs” on the fibers. After time the material won’t typically stretch over time, but the fibers can weaken or break down if they are creased or folded the same way over and over again.

Chapter # 3

Swatch 7-Silk


Silk Taffeta is from Persian word, which means “twisted woven” Obviously being a Persian word the fabric was originated in Persia some time in the 16th century. The fabric is premium silk and its soft with muted lustrous finish and it also has horizontal ribbing. Silk taffeta is a flat fabric and has a distinctive silken rustle. France and Italy are two countries where silk was hand woven for many centuries. Recently many productions have mostly shifted to the Bangalore, which is a region in India and due to the economies of scale and sophisticated production capabilities. Dyed taffeta tends to be softer and is typically used as lining or in-home décor. Taffeta is also used for eveningwear, wedding gowns, ball gowns and sometimes accessories. being that is has a fuller body. Silk taffeta can be woven and dual weave and it can also be contrasting colors. It is also said that it should always be dried clean. As I look at the swatch it reminds me of a glassy look and crisp look. It is also known to have a myriad range of colors and patterns and it is also know for its best quality when it comes to drapery, upholstery and dressmaking.

Silk is known and widely considered to be:

o The most luxurious fabric

o The most comfortable fabric

o The most absorbent fabric (equal to wool)

o The best fabric for drape

o The best fabric for color

o Capable of the greatest luster

o Having the finest "hand"

o The strongest natural fabric (a steel filament of the same diameter as silk will break before a filament of silk.)

o Environmentally friendly

o Soil resistant

o Moth & mildew resistant

o Cool in summer

o Warm in winter

Chapter #4

Swatch #

Spun and Filament yarns ( polyester )

Spun Yarns vs. Filament Yarns vs. Textured-Bulk Yarns
Spun: cotton like, short fibers twisted into continuous strand with protruding ends, most absorbent type of fiber, most complex process.
Smooth-Filament: silk-like, long continuous, close packed, least absorbent fiber type, least complicated process.
BCF: Fabrics have strength of filament yarns but resemble the luster and hand of spun yarns. Long continuous, irregular, porous flexible strands, moderately absorbent as compared with smooth-filament yarns of same fiber. Moderately complex process.

is “a generic term for a continuous strand of textile fibers, filaments, or material in a form suitable for knitting, weaving, or otherwise intertwining to form a textile fabric” Yarns play an important role in the fabric manufacturing process since a majority of the textile materials are constructed with yarns.
Yarns are also used for products such as sewing and embroidery thread, string, and rope. Yarns are produced in various sizes and textures, and also vary in other characteristics. Performance, end use, and fabric care are affected by these yarn characteristics
The fiber length to divide yarns into spun yarns which are made from shirt to staple fiber and Filament yarn which is made from continuous filament fiber. Yarns have processing methods for spun yarns and very different from those of filament yarns. Spun yarns are composed of shirt fiber or long filament fiber, which have been cut into short fibers. The staple fibers are twisted together to form spun yarns. The spinning method used to manufacture the yarn affects properties such as uniformity and strength. The finer, smoother, better quality cotton yarns, known as combed cotton yarns, are produced by coming the fibers prior to spinning. The filament yarn are extruded yarns that are made of natural extruded fibers or manufactured fibers extruded through the spinneret. Monofilament which is made from a single , relatively thicker filament fiber. Multifilament yarn, which is made from multiple filament fibers. Some filament yarns are produced by slitting or splitting yarns sheet or film of metallic –coated or polymer yarns.
. Yarn Types - Simple Yarns - Novelty Yarns - Compound Yarns
Yarn Characteristics - Fiber Composition - Yarn size - Yarn twist - Direction of Twist - Yarn Hairiness - Yarn Bulk
Chapter 5

Swatch # 39 – Terry Cloth


Terry cloth is an example of a fabric with uncut-pile weaves. Terry cloth fabric consists of ground warp and filling yarns. It also has extra yarn set warp yarns for the pile in form of loops on the surface of the cloth. Uncut pile, also known as loop pile or rounded loops, is finish of the fabric without cutting the yarns. The uncut pile is very strong because the loops of the yarn run continuously from face of the carpet through it back. Adding the back in the yarn makes it even stronger.

“The regularity or irregularity of the loops, the height and texture of the yarn is determined by the surface and texture of the uncut pile. The strongest carpet is made with uncut pile weave”.[pic]

For example:

The factors that affect the appearance , performance and cost of pile fabrics include

. Pile height

. Fiber content of the pile fabric

. Fabric construction and count of the base cloth

Terry Cloth towel quality, cost and durability are dependent on the weave type (plain or twill) count of the base, cloth, and the loop characteristics.

The history on Terry comes from the French word “tier” which means to pull out, referring to the pile loops, which were pulled out by hand to make, and absorbent turkey towel. It was known that that originally terry weaving was likely the result of defective weaving.

“In research conducted on terry weaving by the Manchester Textile Institute, it was concluded that original terry weaving was likely the result of defective weaving. The research indicates that this development occurred in Turkey, probably in Bursa City, one of the major traditional textile centers in Turkey. Terry weaving construction is considered a later development in the evolution of woven fabrics. Terry toweling is still known as "Turk Fabric", "Turkish Toweling" or "Turkish Terry"

Just the thought of the fabric that was created du to a mistake just boggles me.

Chapter 6

Swatch #68

Sports Jersey Silver – Triscot Mesh Nylon


Jersey Single filling knit, all loops are drawn to one side of the fabric, simplest fabric. Unravels from either end. Weft knit knitting is usually used for sweaters in hosiery; latch knitting. It also runs horizontal from side to side; needles slide back and forth in a slot. The knitting machine that is used to make a jersey is pretty much makes a small and even close-grained stitch. Like many other knit fabric, jersey fabric has a right side and a wrong side. The right side of the material is marked by series of very small lines, which run vertically, and the wrong side has a horizontal grain.

Chapter 8

Swatch #

Computer shade Matching and computer-Controlled Dyeing

Computer –management systems, by contrast are high tech approaches, which require higher skills to achieve proficiency.

Color-matching system are coming into increasable widespread use it is a system when operational are more accurate and efficient than then trail and error methods.

There is one key element in successfully utilizing such a system is the accurate and repeatable measurement of the samples being evaluated. If the technique is not used as it should and its poor in the sample measurement it will greatly diminish the accuracy of the formulas produced by the shade matching software and will provide misleading results from the quality control software. A mistake can all lead to a considerable waste of time and money.

Loose fiber is especially difficult to measure repeatedly. A mass of fiber placed at the port of a spectrophotometer tends to protrude into the sphere in much the same way as too many layers of a sheer material. Not only does this introduce error into the reflectance measurement, but there is also the risk of loose fibers falling into the instrument and interfering with the measurement process. One technique to eliminate these errors is to place a piece of optically clear glass against the view port before measuring. The quickest and most variable measurement is with yarn. Is most common method for measuring yarn and to obtain a small skein and simple form.
If there were any degree of success it would be expected from a spectrophotometer and computer formulation and the quality of the control system. There are repeatable techniques for measuring dyed samples and it must be established. A failure to establish a repeatable measurement technique will introduce a significant potential error. All the formulation and quality control programs will also be an error.

Chapter 9 - Direct Print

Swatch # 81


There are a few ways to direct print but one way would be direct fabric printing. When doing Direct Printing the fabric itself is run through the computer as if it were paper. The printing is done directly on the fabric with the computer inks. In the "old days" (just a few years ago) there were no color printers at all and some fabric was printed using only black images, line drawings or text with laser printers or with dot matrix ribbon printers. Color laser printers are dropping in price and will form permanent images on fabric if heat set with an iron. The problem was that the inks used in ink jet printers (sometimes also called "bubble jet inks" due to the Bubble Jet name Canon uses for their ink jet printers) are water soluble and not fast to washing and so the color would not stay in the fabric. The printing of the shirt takes 10 to 15 minute and it also depends on the resolution. It also depends on what you want to print on the shirt. I believe this takes to long to print a tee shirt or any garment. As a silk screening press it can print a lot faster.



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Chapter 10

Swatch # 93 –Chintz

Fiber content is Cotton


When I realized what Chintz was it remind me when I lived in California and honestly I am not going to lie I actually owned a dress that was made out of this fabric accept that my dress was made out of a different pattern it had flowers. Even though most southern girls wore these dresses, I some how owned one and also parade around like it was the all in all.

Chintz is usually used on home decorating, drapery, upholstery bedding, tablecloths, throws pillows cushions, all your home Décor. Chintz is a cotton fabric that can be either a solid color or a beautifully printed floral or stripe. The finish is what is most desirable. Why? Because you can always wipe it down.

“Chintz is a closely woven plain weave cotton fabric with a shiny and lustrous finish. The fabric is processed with glazed finish to give it a polish look. There are lots of varieties also like, Cotton chintz fabric has several types of glaze, Resin finish chintz is a durable glaze. It withstands washing or dry cleaning, The wax and starch glaze washes out. It is produced by friction or glazing calendars, Some chintz also comes in semi-glazed form. Unglazed chintz is known as 'Cretonne”.
The History of Chintz stained or painted calico produced in India and popularly used in the design of curtains, draperies, quilts and bedcovers. During the 17th and 18th century, Chintz, was brought from India to Europe by English, Portuguese and Italian people, who discovered the beautiful fabric in India. At the beginning the Europeans originally began by reproducing Indian designs, and later added their own innovative patterns. A famous Chintz make was "toile de Jouy" which was manufactured in Jouy, France between 1700 and 1843.

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Textile Industry Analysis

...GST- HANDLOOM AND TEXTILE SECTOR INTRODUCTION The Textile industry contributes 2% to India’s GDP .India is the largest producer of cotton and jute and second largest producer of silk and manmade fibre and filament in the world. Cotton majorly dominates the yarn and the fabric stage. Who produces them? The handloom and textile weavers. Any loom which is operated manually is called a handloom whereas textile is a flexible material composed of natural or synthetic fibres, formed by weaving, knitting, knotting etc. The textile industry employs the maximum number of people after agriculture. It directly employs upto 50 million and indirectly upto 60 million people (approximately). The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is the biggest tax reform in India...

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