Free Essay

Anatomy & Physiology Lymphatic System Notes!

In: Science

Submitted By erinhonke
Words 1755
Pages 8
Chapter.20 Lymphatic System & lymphoid organs and tissues

Lymphatic System: returns fluids that have leaked from the blood vascular system back into the blood

3 Parts:
Network of lymphatic vessels
Lymph = fluid contained in those vessels
Lymph nodes - cleanse the lymph as it passes through them

Lymphatic vessels form a one way system in which lymph fluid flows only towards the heart.

when fluid pressure is greater then the pressure n the lymphatic capillary it will be drained toward the heart.

order questions? how does it flow from the lymphatic capillaries to the heart? or opposite way around.

The cistern chill collects lymph from the 2 larger lumbar trunks that drain the lower limbs & form the intestinal trunk that drains the digestive organs.

Lymphoid Organs & Tissues: provide the structural basis of the immune system

-House phagocytic cells & lymphocytes which play roles in the body defines mechanisms & resistance to disease. Ex- Spleen

Lymphatic Capillaries:
Weave btwn the tissue cells and blood capillaries in the loose CT of the body these vessels to be EXTREMELY permeable due to mini-valves.

Lymphatic Trunks: drain large areas of the body, named for the regions which they drain lymph

Lymphatic Ducts:
R Lymphatic Duct
-drains lymph from R upper limb & right side of head and thorax
2) Thoracic Duct much larger b/c receives lymph from the rest of the body

Lymph Transport:
Lymphatic vessels are low-pressure conduits
Use the same mechanisms that promote venous return in blood vessels to move the lymph
a)Milking action of active skeletal muscles
b)Pressure changes in the thorax during breathing
c)Valves to prevent back flow

Lymphoid Cells:

Agranulocytes:
4.Lymphocytes
Only 2% are found in blood, Most are in lymph tissue (lymph nodes, & spleen) Perform immune responses
Arise in red bone marrow & mature into one of two main types…

T lymphocytes (T cells)
Manages immune responses, attack & destroy infected cells
(mature in the thymus gland)
Give rise to:
Effector T Cells (cytotoxic T cells)- secrete cytotoxic agents that destroy virus invaded cells & cancer cells
b) Helper T Cells- secrete chemical messengers to activate T & B cells as well as macrophages
c) Regulatory T Cells-
“remember” antigen for rapid immune response 2nd encounter

2) B lymphocytes (B cells)
Protects body by producing plasma cells that secrete antibodies that mark antigens for destruction.
(mature in bone marrow)
Give rise to:
a)Plasma Cells- produce antibodies that will attach to foreign cells (antigens) & destroy them
b) Memory B Cells-
“remember” pathogens encountered and can have a rapid response if it is detected again

Antigens are anything that provokes an immune response.
-such as bacteria, their toxins
-viruses
-mismatched RBC
-cancer cells

Macrophages: play crucial role in body protection & immune response
-phagocytize foreign substances
-help to activate T cells

Lymphiod tissues:
-where we store our lymphocytes, and watch for problems
Functions:
Houses + provides a proliferation site for lymphocytes
Is an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes & macrophages

Types:

Diffuse lymphoid tissue: loose arrangement of lymphoid cells & some reticular fibres. Found in virtually every body organ

b) Lymphoid follicles/nodules:
Solid, spherical bodies consisting of tightly packed lymphoid cells & reticular fibers.-forms larger lymphoid organs -lymph nodes

Lymph Nodes:

2 functions:

1)Filtration:
Marcrophages in nodes remove and destroy microorganism and other debris in the lymph.

2) Immune system activation: sites where lymphocytes will encounter antigens & are activated to mount an attack against them

Lab exam question- what digestive role does the spleen have?

Spleen:
Largest lymphoid organ
Found on L side of abdominal cavity below the diaphragm
Provides a site for lymphocyte multiplication & immune surveillance & response
-stores blood platelets & monocytes for release into the blood
-site of erythrocyte production in the fetus

Extracting old/damaged blood cells and platelets from blood.
-its macrophages remove debris and foreign matter from blood

Histology:
White pulp
-where immune functions take place
-composed mostly of lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers
B) Red Pulp
-where worn out RBC’s & blood borne pathogens are destroyed
-sontains large # of erythrocyte & macrophages that engulf them

what does the white and red pulp do in the spleen?

Thymus:
Found in the inferior neck region
Maturation site for T lymphocyte precursors
-Must be kept isolate from foreign antigens to prevent their premature activation
-There is a blood thymus barrier that keeps blood born antigens out of the thymus

Mucosa- Associated Lymphoid Tissue (Malt): is a set of distributed lymphoid tissues strategically located in mucous membranes throughout the body.

know all these organs

Tonsils: ring of lymphoid tissue around entrance to the pharynx
-gather & remove many of the pathogens entering the pharynx in food or inhaled air
**Include Palatine, lingual, pharyngeal and tubal tonsils! **

Palatine: ethier side at the posterior end of oral cavity

Lingual: base of tongue

Pharyngeal: posterior wall of the nasopharynx

Tubal: surround the opening of auditory tube into pharynxl

Peyer’s Patches: structurally similar to the tonsils
Located in wall of the distal portion of the small intestine

Appendix: tubular offshoot of the first part of large intes.
Destroys bacteria generates many “memory” lymphocytes from long-term immunity

Review!

LAB NOTES- Feb.2nd BLOOD

Must know: normal % of each type of WBC, know fncs of each type, know disease condition if % changes, normal hematocrit ( male and female) normal hemoglobin concentration (male/female) normal total: RBC (male/female)
-what condition would cause a increase or decrease
-normal total WBC count- what condition can cause increaser decrease
-normal clotting time

knowthe 2 subdivisions of dig. system give example of where you can find a fibrous suture

Anatomy : Digestive System -missing lots online

2 Major Sub-divisions:

Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

2) Accessory Digestive Organs teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas

6 functions:
Ingestion
Secretion
Mixing & propulsion
Digestion (mechanical/ chemical)
Absorption
Defecation

HISTOLOGY
4 layers throughout entire digestive tract:

1)Mucosa (lines the lumen)
2)Submucosa - thick Areolar CT w/ Blood vessels, Lymph vessels, nerves and glands
3)Muscularis
4)Serosa (outside layer) CT & Simple squamous for protection

Serous Membranes of the GIT:
Lining abdominopelvic cavity = Parietal peritoneum
Covers organs = Visceral peritoneum

The space between the organs and the skin is called the …. cavity?
Peritoneal cavity! Filled w/ serous fluid - to lubricate

Folds of the peritoneum bind organs together & to abdominal wall. These folds include…
Mesentary:suspends s.i from posterior body wall.
Greater momentum: extends from greater curveture of stomach & drapes over intestines
Lesser omentum: from lesser curtain of stomach to liver
Falciform ligament: attaches liver to front body wall
Mesocolon: Suspends Large int. from back body wall

Regulation of Digestive Functions:
-Regulate GIT muscle motility & secretions
Control mechanisms - neural and endocrine
Endocrine control: various hormones
Neural control: involves Enteric NS & Autonomic NS
Sensory input to ENS & AND comes from chemoreceptors (detect chemical contents of pH of gut) & stretch receptors (detect distension of gut)
Enteric NS motor neurons are arranged in the gut wall as the:
-myenteric plexus (controls gut motility)
-submucosal plexus (controls GIT secretion of mucosa

Autonomic NS motor neurons can modify activity of the ENS or act directly on smooth muscle and glands
-in general parasympathetic nerve stimulation increases GIT activity (stimualte digestive motility & secretions) & sympathetic nerve stimulation decreases activity

Mouth (Oral/ Buccal Cavity):
-Hard & Soft palates allow breathing while chewing
-Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Tongue is composed of bundles of skeletal muscle covered by epithelium - manipulates food & initiates swallowing
Teeth are located in alveolar sockets of the mandible and maxilla - mechanically breakdown food

Salivary Glands (accessory organs) produce & secrete saliva into mouth - 3 types (parotid, sublingual & submandibular glands)
-Saliva: dissolves some ingested material for taste identification
-contains mucus to lubricate and form bolus
-contains salivary amylase - starts breakdown of starch to sugar
-contains lysozyme

PNS increases saliva secretion in response to touch/taste receptors, sight, though and smell of food

Pharynx:
Swallowing occurs:
-tongue pushes food against hard palate & bolus is forced into oropharynx
-receptors are stimulated that initiate swallowing reflex in medulla and pons
-soft palate and uvula rise and close off nasopharynx
-larynx elevates & epiglottis covers glottis and food/liquid passes through upper esophageal sphincter
-peristaltic contractions propel blus down
-lower esophageal sphincter opens

Esophagus:
Muscular tube - w/ nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Posterior to trachea
Alternating waves of contraction & relaxation propels bolus to stomach (called peristalsis)
-circular muscle fibers contract to constrict the wall & bolus is squeezed downward
-meanwhile below bolus, longitudinal fibres contract to shorten & expand the esophagus wall to receive the bolus

Stomach:
4 regions:
Cardia
Fundus
Body
Pylorus

Empty volume = 50ml
Capacity (full) = 1.5-2.5 L
Very distended = 4L

Mucosa = simple columnar epithelium
-forms gastric glands! With many cell types…
Mucus neck cell: produces protective mucus - protect stomach walls from HCl + pepsin
Parietal cells: produce HCl & intrinsic factor for Vitamin B12 absorption.
Chief cells: produce pepsinogen (inactive protein-digesting enzyme)
Enteroendocrine cells: G cells that secrete the hormone gastrin

Secrete 2-3L of gastric juice/day
Mucosa forms large folds when the stomach is empty called rugae - which allow it to distend
Muscularis has an inner oblique, middle circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle layer
-extra oblique layer allows the stomach to compress, knead + twist

Stomach functions:
Storage & mixing
-mechanical digestion from peristaltic waves mixing food with secretions of gastric glands to form chyme

This begins protein digestion
-HCl activates pepsinogen to form pepsin
-proteins are broken down into peptides
Aborsb some water, ions, alcohol, drugs

Small Intestine:
Begins at pyloric sphincter & includes the duodenum, jejunum & ileum
Mucosa has a simple columnar epithelium w/ many goblet cells & deep crypts
Major area of digestion & absorption of nutrients - large surface area needed:
-presence of villi in mucosa
-presence of microvilli
-presence of picas circulates (permanent folds of the mucosa & submucosa)

Mucosa has several cell types:
Absorptive cells: absorb & digest nutrients
Produce enzymes
2. Goblet cells: produce mucus
3.Secretory cells: secrete intestinal juice
4.Paneth cells: secrete lysozyme
5. Enteroendocrine cells:
S cells secrete the hormone secretin ! CCK cells secrete cholecystokinin
S.I Functions:
1.Mechanical digestion
-segmentation mixes chyme w/ intestinal juice, pancreatic juice & bile
-circular smooth muscles alternately contracts and relaxes and chyme moves back and forth to mix
2.Completes carbohydrate, protein and lipid digestion
3.Aborbs 90% of nutrients cross epithelial cells to enter blood and lymph vessels in the villus
4.Peristaltic waves move chyme to ileocecal valve

Pancreas: accessory organ that lies inferior to the greater curvature of the stomach
Exocrine Gland (99%)(glandular cells) secrete pancreatic juice into small ducts — pancreatic duct — hepatopancreatic ampulla — duodenum

Secrete about 1.5L of alkaline pancreatic juice per day

& Endocrine gland (1%)

Similar Documents

Free Essay

This Is the a & P

...BIO 253 Anatomy and Physiology 2012-2013 Syllabus Template Mount Olive College Your professor, their email, phone number and office hours are available on the Moodle site for the course. Division Chair: Mickael Cariveau, Ph.D. Division Chair email and phone: MCariveau@moc.edu; 919-658-7680 Course Description (4 sh): This course is directed toward providing pre-clinical concepts for nursing and other allied health professional students that includes a study of body organization, cytology, and histology, acid/base and fluid/electrolyte balance and all body systems including Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, gastrointestinal, endocrine, reproductive, blood, lymphatic, cardiovascular, respiratory and renal. Basic principles of pathophysiology and pharmacology will be introduced. Demonstration and hands-on laboratory activities will be based on concepts of clinical physical assessment. Required Text: Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition, E. N. Marieb Student Learning Outcomes (stated in objective, measurable terms. What will students know or be able to do when they complete the course?) Student Learning Outcomes Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to: Means of Assessment This outcome will be indicated by successful: 1. Understand the structure of the human body and it functions as it relates to nursing and other allied health professions. 2. Discuss the physiology of the major organ systems and how they relate to......

Words: 997 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Hhhh

...ATLANTA TECHNICAL COLLEGE ACADEMIC AND LEARNING SUPPORT SERVICES Program of Study: General Education BIO 2114 Anatomy and Physiology II This course syllabus is designed to assure students high academic success. It provides relevant information, outlines the course objectives, performance objectives, varied teaching methods that will be used, evaluation criteria for the course and work ethics, warranty claims, available student support services, expected accomplishments, and specific timelines. INSTITUTIONAL MISSION: Atlanta Technical College, a unit of the Technical College System of Georgia, located in the city of Atlanta, is an accredited institution of higher education that provides affordable lifelong learning opportunities, associate degrees, diplomas, technical certificates of credit, customized business and industry training, continuing education and other learning services using state-of-the-art technology. The integration of academics and applied career preparation to enhance student learning is essential in meeting the workforce demands and economic development needs of the people, businesses, and communities of Fulton County. Course Title: Anatomy and Physiology II Course Code Number: BIO 2114 Prerequisites: BIO 2113 Contact Hours: 70 Includes: Class Hours: 4 D. Lab Hours: 3 Credit Hours: 5 Instructor's Name: Barry N. Bates Office Room Number: 2107 Office Phone Number:......

Words: 3496 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

One Anatomy

...LECTURE NOTES For Nursing Students Human Anatomy and Physiology Nega Assefa Alemaya University Yosief Tsige Jimma University In collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education 2003 Funded under USAID Cooperative Agreement No. 663-A-00-00-0358-00. Produced in collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education. Important Guidelines for Printing and Photocopying Limited permission is granted free of charge to print or photocopy all pages of this publication for educational, not-for-profit use by health care workers, students or faculty. All copies must retain all author credits and copyright notices included in the original document. Under no circumstances is it permissible to sell or distribute on a commercial basis, or to claim authorship of, copies of material reproduced from this publication. ©2003 by Nega Assefa and Yosief Tsige All rights reserved. Except as expressly provided above, no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the author or authors. This material is intended for educational use only by practicing health care workers or students and......

Words: 63550 - Pages: 255

Premium Essay

Digestive System

...E.J.S. BIO 235L: Anatomy & Physiology II Lab The Digestive System and its Accessory Organs 1. Parotid Gland 2. Sublingual Gland 3. Submandibular Gland 4. Liver 5. Gallbladder 6. Duodenum 7. Pancreas 8. Hepatic Flexure 9. Ascending Colon 10. Ileum 11. Cecum 12. Appendix 13. Sigmoid Flexure 14. Anus 15. Rectum 16. Sigmoid Colon 17. Descending Colon 18. Jejunum 19. Transverse Colon 20. Splenic Flexure of Transverse Colon 21. Spleen 22. Stomach 23. Esophagus 1. Parotid Gland 2. Sublingual Gland 3. Submandibular Gland 4. Liver 5. Gallbladder 6. Duodenum 7. Pancreas 8. Hepatic Flexure 9. Ascending Colon 10. Ileum 11. Cecum 12. Appendix 13. Sigmoid Flexure 14. Anus 15. Rectum 16. Sigmoid Colon 17. Descending Colon 18. Jejunum 19. Transverse Colon 20. Splenic Flexure of Transverse Colon 21. Spleen 22. Stomach 23. Esophagus The Digestive Pathway Mechanical Digestion begins in the mouth from the moment that a food bolus enters the oral cavity. Mastication, the mechanical breakdown of the food bolus by chewing occurs here. Chemical Digestion begins when the Salivary Glands (Parotid, Sublingual and Submandibular Glands) release saliva into the oral cavity. Saliva contains amylase, an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates. After bolus has been broken down adequately, swallowing occurs. The food bolus will move through the pharynx and enter the esophagus continuing its journey via peristalsis (rhythmic contractions of the...

Words: 1220 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Biol

...introduction 23rd feb : Pass program Little groups * Learning notes topics discussions * Informal * opens Friday 27th feb 5.00 Studies: How the body works Anatomy Gross anatomy – internal structures Microscopic anatomy- study of cells, study of tissues (microscope) Physiology- cellular physiology – e.g. nerves and muscle fibres Integrative physiology- different tissues and organs, functions e.g. cardiovascular Levels of organisation e.g. tissues, organs, organ systems organism levels Go through link called echo – access lecture recordings My unit- weekly feedback quiz Biology and chemistry lessons Textbook folder mastering a&p Lecture d 3rd week on a Tuesday Labour day (Monday) good Friday Assessments In class tests (30%) Quiz a (10 %) quiz b (20%) Worksheet questions (30%) Final exam 40% See unit outline for due dates, methods, extensions Quiz a Week 3 (early feedback) 30 mins to complete Opens 3pm Tuesday 10th Closes 3am Thursday 12th Quiz b Week 7 semesters Week 3 up to lecture 16 (muscles) 60 mins marked out of 50 Worksheet questions (30%) due week 11 of sem Set of questions provided online in week 8 Week 1-10 Final exam Mix mcq and sa Material from whole semester Higher weighting of 11 &12 Feedback about progress: Quizzes weekly Review assessments EIP BIOL 121 TUTORIAL 1 CHEMISTRY: Reading: pages 53-61 notes * Science of structure that deals with......

Words: 5008 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Labs

...INSTRUCTOR GUIDE Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual MAIN VERSION, Eighth Edition Update CAT VERSION, Ninth Edition Update FETAL PIG VERSION, Ninth Edition Update ELAINE N. MARIEB, R.N., Ph.D Holyoke Community College SUSAN T. BAXLEY, M.A. Troy University, Montgomery Campus NANCY G. KINCAID, Ph.D Troy University, Montgomery Campus PhysioEx™ Exercises authored by Peter Z. Zao, North Idaho College Timothy Stabler, Indiana University Northwest Lori Smith, American River College Greta Peterson, Middlesex Community College Andrew Lokuta, University of Wisconsin—Madison San Francisco • Boston • New York Cape Town • Hong Kong • London • Madrid • Mexico City Montreal • Munich • Paris • Singapore • Sydney • Tokyo • Toronto Editor-in-Chief: Serina Beauparlant Project Editor: Sabrina Larson PhysioEx Project Editor: Erik Fortier Editorial Assistant: Nicole Graziano Managing Editor: Wendy Earl Production Editor: Leslie Austin Composition: Cecelia G. Morales Cover Design: Riezebos Holzbaur Design Group Senior Manufacturing Buyer: Stacey Weinberger Marketing Manager: Gordon Lee Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 1301 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94111. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any......

Words: 120457 - Pages: 482

Free Essay

New Health and Scoail Unit 5

...Course Title | BTEC National Health & Social Care | Unit Title | Anatomy and Physiology for health & social care | Level | 3 | Unit Number | 5 | Unit Credit | 10 | Assignment Title | Anatomy and Physiology for health & social care | Part Unit | | Whole Unit | Yes | Assessor | Shanroy Dehaney | Start Date | 20/05/15 | Submission Date | 10/06/15 | Feedback Date | 17/05/15 | Vocational Context | Task 1 - 3 (P1,P2,P3)You are working in a health clinic and have been asked to produce a poster to explain the functions of the main cell, tissue and body components to display in the clinic. Task 4 (P4,M1,D1)You are an advisor in your local sports centre and you have been asked to design and produce an information booklet to explain to clients how the body requires and utilises energy. This should include:Produce a written report on the body’s response to exercise. The report will be based on primary and secondary research. The report will include:Task 5 (P5,M2,D2) 1. An explanation of the concept of homeostasis and its role in exercise and healthy functioning of the body. 2. Measurements collected from practical work involving physical activity and your interpretation of them together with comments on the validity of the data collected.Task 6 (P6)Complete exercise programme and complete data form and graphs sheets | The Brief | Task 1 (P1)Using a large piece of paper, produce an annotated poster of a cell as it is seen under the microscope.......

Words: 2127 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Body Systems

...Bodily Systems and the Spatial-Functional Structure of the Human Body Barry Smith, PhD1,2, Igor Papakin1, Katherine Munn1 1Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science Faculty of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany 2Department of Philosophy, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract. The human body as conceived by medical science is a system made of systems. The body is divided into bodily systems proper, such as the endocrine and circulatory systems. These are subdivded into many subsystems at a variety of levels whereby all systems and subsystems engage in massive causal interaction with other systems and subsystems. In this essay we offer an explicit definition of bodily system, and explicit means for understanding these causal interactions. Whereas informality is acceptable in documentation created for human beings, it falls short of what is needed for computer representations. In our analysis we will define bodily system, and will take some first steps toward understanding the causal relationships bodily systems have with their subsystems. 1. Introduction Ontology plays an increasingly significant role in work on terminology and knowledge management systems in the domain of biomedical informatics, and we hold that it will play an essential role in biomedical research of the future. The term ‘ontology’ must, however, be understood in the right way [1]. The dominant paradigm might be referred to as......

Words: 12460 - Pages: 50

Free Essay

Journal

...With these in mind, we form the following objectives.   General objectives: * This case study is designed for student nurses like us to become practiced, well informed and mannered in delivering holistic care for patients diagnosed with tetanus, as well as to gain knowledge and overview about the disease.   Specific objectives: * To imply appropriate nursing management for tetanus. * To be able to discuss the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. * To be able to define tetanus and identify its clinical manifestations and risk factors. * To be acquainted with the different drugs for tetanus and their actions. * Plan for a suitable nursing care. * To know the purposes and specific nursing responsibilities before, during, and after some procedure done with the client. * To institute bond between the student nurse and the patient.       II. INTRODUCTION Tetanus comes from the Greek word “teiteim” which means to stretch. It is also called lockjaw. It is a serious infectious disease of the nervous system in which toxin causes severe muscle spasm. It is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. It is caused by a bacterium Clostridium tetani. Infection generally occurs through wound contamination and often involves a cut or deep punctured wound. Tetanus is often associated with rust, but this concept is somewhat misleading. The C.Tetani is an Anaerobic bacteria which survives in......

Words: 3694 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Health Assessment Family

...COLLABORATIVE BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING PROGRAM (University of Windsor, Lambton College, St. Clair College – Windsor & Thames) Health Assessment NRS 63-166 Fall 2011 Site: St Clair College, Thames Campus Teaching Faculty Linda O’Halloran Phone: 519-354-9714 Ext. 3233 E-mail: lohalloran@stclaircollege.ca Office Hours: Monday’s 1100 – 1200, Tuesday’s 1000 - 1600 or by appointment Course Location Room 118 Course Times: Monday’s 1200 – 1400 – lecture Labs: weekly- either Monday or Tuesday as per your schedule Lab Teaching Instructor Maureen Eyres Andrea Reddam Vanessa Schinkel ©Collaborative BScN Program 2010 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED INTRODUCTION TO COLLABORATIVE BScN PROGRAM Mission Statement As partners, the Faculty of Nursing at the University of Windsor with St. Clair College (Windsor and Thames Campuses) and Lambton College (Sarnia) undertake the shared commitment to excellence in the preparation of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) candidates who embody our core values and the best elements of the art and science of nursing, education, leadership, research, and practice in their professional journeys. Vision EXCELLENCE in nursing education, practice, and research. Core......

Words: 4870 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Biology Study Notes

...Instructor’s Manual for the Laboratory Manual to Accompany Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology Eighth Edition Terry R. Martin Kishwaukee College [pic] [pic] Instructor’s Manual for the Laboratory Manual to Accompany Hole’s essentials of human anatomy and physiology, eighth edition David shier, jackie butler, and ricki lewis Published by McGraw-Hill Higher Education, an imprint of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2003, 2000, 1998. All rights reserved. The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced in print form solely for classroom use with Hole’s essentials of human anatomy and physiology, eighth edition, provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in any other form or for any other purpose without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. www.mhhe.com Contents PREFACE V An Overview vi Instructional Approaches viii Correlation of Textbook Chapters and Laboratory Exercises ix Suggested Time Schedule xi Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology Exercise 1 Scientific Method and Measurements 1 Exercise 2 Body......

Words: 15575 - Pages: 63

Free Essay

Animal

...Animal Diversity Time Requirements: Exercise 1: 15 mins. Exercise 2: 15 mins. Exercise 3: 30 mins. Exercise 4: 10 mins. Exercise 5: 15 mins. Exercise 6: 20 mins. Exercise 7: 30 mins. Exercise 8: 10 mins. Exercise 9: 30 mins. Materials Required: ITEM NUMBER (per group) LOCATION Any living or preserved plant *specimens (listed below) Display Cart/Counter Microscopes (compound and dissecting) Display Counter Colored pencils 1 set Cart/Counter *Specimens: Preserved or Living Prepared Slides Grantia Grantia choanocytes Hydra Planaria Tapeworm Clam Termite Brittle star Crayfish Earthworm Frog Mammal skulls Sand dollar Sea cucmber Sea star Lab Safety: Wear safety goggles/glasses and gloves while handing specimens (it is preferred that specimens remain in the appropriate containers untouched). Lab coats or aprons may be available upon request. Demonstrations/Tutorials: To display each life cycle with specimens and slides, see the following display suggestions – Clean up and Disposal of Waste 1. Return any materials to original locations. 2. Try to preserve any living specimens for future labs. Lab Alternatives – Computer Based p. 113 Exercise 1 – Phylum Porifera – Sponges Given that all sponges are filter feeders, why does it follow that all sponges are aquatic? Filter feeding is the filtering of nutrients and plankton suspended in water therefore for sponges to feed effectively they must be......

Words: 4763 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

13b - Distribution and Constituents of Fluids P3 M2

...13B – Distribution and constituents of fluids P3: Distribution and constituents of body fluids – M2: Explain functions of the constituents of body fluids - Constituents of body fluid - The human body consists mostly of water, and is a major constituent to the human body and vital organs; of this 90% include blood plasma, lymph, urine, saliva, digestive juices, bile, cerebrospinal fluid and tissue fluid. Water enables substances to be transported throughout the body, red blood cells for example, as wells as supplying the medium required for metabolic reaction to take place (respiration). Without water the progression of these fluids would not be possible. Water is constantly being transported between the fluid compartments of the body. Water has five main functions in the body, of which includes: • 'Cell life - distribute nutrients to cells i.e. vitamins, minerals and glucose • Chemical and metabolic reactions - removal of waste products (toxins) from the organs • Transport of nutrients – participates in the breakdown of food • Body temperature regulation - water has a large heat capacity that allows it to help limit any changes to an individual's body temperature in a certain environment. For example the release of heat when the surrounding temperature is higher than body temperature • Elimination of waste' Urea – Urea is an organic molecule made up of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. Urea is a common constituent of blood and other......

Words: 2877 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Managment

...(check before class begins in case of changes): http://www.fcas.nova.edu/coursewizard/ Building & Room: Follow the above link to find this course. II. INSTRUCTOR: Janice Stone, D.C. Office Hours by appointment before class on Thursdays Phone: Leave message (954) 262-8300 (MST Secretary) E-mail: js2867@nova.edu Departmental Contact: Dr. Deanne Roopnarine Coordinator of Biology roopnari@nova.edu 954-262-8196 III. COURSE DESCRIPTION Medical Terminology: This course covers the basic structure of medical terms, including roots, prefixes, and suffixes. Emphasis will also be placed on the terminology of body systems. Medical terms related to anatomy, physiology, pathology, clinical procedures, laboratory tests, and medical abbreviations will be covered. Also, students will learn medical terminology related to specialized areas of...

Words: 3268 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Pancreatic Cancer

...The pancreas is a part of the endocrine system, and is located in the abdominal cavity surrounded by the liver, gallbladder, spleen, and stomach. The pancreas processes both exocrine and endocrine function. The exocrine function consists of the secretion of digestive enzymes into the duodenum through ducts. The enzymes digest starches and fats. The endocrine functions are a cluster of cells called the islets of Langerhans and only make up 2% of the pancreatic tissue. The islets of Langerhans is made up of three cells, alpha, beta, and delta. There function is to secrete hormones and paracrine products. The most important hormones secreted are insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Alpha cells secrete glucagon, which increase blood glucose levels between meals. Beta cells secrete insulin, this is secreted when the level of glucose rises in the blood. Insulin stimulates cells to store nutrients to use between meals and at night to maintain blood glucose levels. Delta cells secrete somatostatin, after meals when blood glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids raise in the blood. Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant cancer. Tumors commonly originate from the epithelial cells of the pancreatic ductal system. This can happen in two ways, one that it has metastasized from a different part of the body, generally the lungs, breast, thyroid, kidneys, and skin. Second form is a primary tumor manly adenocarcinomas. Adenocarcinomas occur in secretory cells......

Words: 2232 - Pages: 9