Premium Essay

Attitudes and Behavior

In: Social Issues

Submitted By jamie29
Words 11573
Pages 47
03-Brock.qxd

12/1/2004

10:51 AM

Page 41

Chapter 3
ACTING AS WE FEEL
When and How Attitudes Guide Behavior
RUSSELL H. FAZIO

DAVID R. ROSKOS-EWOLDSEN

The Ohio State University

University of Alabama

C onsider each of the following statements. Do you believe the statement to be true or false?
1. College students who disapprove of cheating do not cheat on tests; it is only the students who view cheating as acceptable who do cheat.
2. When segregation was still legal, hotel and restaurant owners with racial stereotypes toward
Chinese people would not serve them food or allow them to stay at their establishments.
3. How well people like their jobs is predictive of people’s job attendance. Those who like their jobs are less likely to miss a day of work.
4. During the 1970s, people who felt that the energy crisis was a significant problem used less energy than did those who did not really believe that there was a crisis.
5. Regardless of whether an employer makes a snap judgment or deliberates extensively about a hiring decision, if the employer has a negative attitude toward working women, a female candidate will not be hired.

All of these commonsense statements assume that people’s attitudes influence their actions and decisions. In fact, as we will see in this chapter, none of these five statements is correct.
The basic finding of decades of research is that sometimes people act in accordance with their attitudes, and other times they act in ways that are quite inconsistent with their attitudes.
In this chapter, we address three fundamental questions regarding the attitude–behavior relation (Zanna & Fazio, 1982). First, is there a relation? That is, do attitudes influence behavior?
Second, when is such a relation to be expected? In other words, what variables determine the degree to which attitudes might influence behavior? To

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Attitude and Behavior

...Attitudes and emotions, while tied together are separate entities. Attitudes are the longer-term general perception that you have over the world and what you perceive happening in it. Emotions are much more specific and much more fleeting. They can certainly feed off each other, a good attitude can foster good emotions from the same events. Along the same lines, opposite emotions can alter mood if kept around too long, but the contradiction usually makes them last a much shorter time. For instance, someone in a good mood would be effected less by a biting remark from a passerby than someone already in a poor mood. They both may have the same emotional reaction, but the person in a good mood would likely shrug it much faster than the person in a bad mood. Personality and values are another area that effect human behavior. Personality is seen as a semi-permanent set of behaviors associated with a particular person and how they interact with the world and other people in it. The Type A vs. Type B personality showdown has person with Type A exhibiting certain behaviors that the person with Type B does not. These behaviors are not always mutually exclusive, there can be a fair amount of overlap, but personality is generally seen as semi-permanent. There are certain trends in personality that you see in people. For instance, as people age, they tend to mellow out and not react so strongly to things that effect them as younger people. There are several competing ways...

Words: 389 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Individual Attitudes and Behavior

...PERCEPTION  Perception – is the process through which people receive, organize, and interpret information from the environment. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS  Psychological Contract – is the set of individual expectations about the employment relationship. PERCEPTION AND ATTRIBUTION  Attribution - is the process of explaining events.  Attribution Error – occurs when observers blame another person’s performance failures more on internal factors relating to the individual than on external factors relating to the environment.  Self-serving bias – explains personal success by internal causes and personal failures b y external causes. Offers Contributions Offers Inducements Figure 15.1 Components in the psychological contract. PERCEPTUAL TENDENCIES AND DISTORTIONS  Stereotype – is when attributes commonly associated with a group are assigned to an individual.  Halo effects – occurs when one attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a person or situation.  Selective Perception – is the tendency to define problems from one’s own point of view.  Projection – is the assignment of personal attributes to other individuals.  Impression Management – is the systematic attempt to influence how others perceive us. PERSONALITY  Personality – is the profile of characteristics making a person unique from others. BIG FIVE MODEL  Extraversion – is being outgoing, sociable, and assertive...

Words: 701 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Food Behaviors and Attitudes

...backgrounds have a huge influence on what people eat and the way they eat it. As a fourth generation Italian-American, my ethnic background has greatly influenced my view of food. While daily food choices still show a small persuasion of the Italian culture, it is the holiday season when the true influence is evident. While food is important aspect of any culture, I feel that this is truer of the Italian ethnicity, as it is commonly stereotyped. My great grandparents emigrated from different regions of Italy, primarily Sicily and Naples. Their families found each other in and around East Haven, Connecticut, the fourth most Italian-American community in the United States. As did scores of immigrants, they upheld many of their cultural behaviors while adopting the norms of American society. Food was an integral part of the transition. While food was a great way to connect with people of your own culture and of other cultures as well, the cost of living for many people of the time prevented them from enjoying all of the luxuries that we are now able to afford. “As immigrants from different regions of Italy settled in different regions of the United States and became ‘Italian-Americans,’ they brought with them diverse traditions of foods and recipes that were particularly identified with their regional origins in Italy and yet infused with the characteristics of their new home locale in America.” While my Italian heritage is somewhat evident in my daily food choices, special...

Words: 1406 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Money, Attitude, and Unethical Behavior

...| Money, Attitude, and Unethical Behavior | Business Research Methods | | | December 11, 2013 | This research paper focuses on the relationship between money, attitude, and unethical behavior. Comparing the data found in regards to gender and major according to a study by Dr. Chen and Dr. Tang. | Introduction Many believe that the success of a business is determined by they amount of money they generate on an annual basis. Because of this widespread belief, we often see a lack of morals, values, and ethics incorporated into the business. Many businesses feel as if there is no room for ethics in the business world and that the relationships built should focus solely on the generation of revenue. According to Merriam Webster dictionary, we can define ethics as, “the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation.” Every company has a code of ethics in order to determine the company’s culture and values. It also acts a driving force behind any decisions made by top executives. In market where there are so many profit-based businesses, often times we see the many difficulties in balancing the pursuit of profits while staying true to their code of ethics. The balance of ethical practice and profit maximization causes companies to face difficult decisions and many times businesses choose profit maximization. Business-to-Business and Business-to-Consumer transactions require frequent interaction. In every type of business transaction...

Words: 6528 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

The Relationship Between Attitudes and Behavior

...Relationship between Attitudes and Behavior Attitude is holding a particular object in some degree of favor or disfavor. The attitude object can be a person, an event, an action or a thing. Previously it was believed that the inner dispositions are what controlled the actions of man. This is to say that man is rational with all behavior being deliberate. However, evidence has shown that this is not always the case and though attitude does influence behavior to an extent, it is not the only factor that influences behavior. Moreover, in some cases behavior can cause attitude change. Theory of planned behavior This theory aimed at predicting deliberate and premeditated behavior. The theory was an add on to the previously formulated theory of reasoned Action when research proved that human action is not entirely voluntary or controlled by rational reason. According to this theory the greatest determinant that leads to behavior is intention (a person’s willingness and readiness to perform a certain action).This intention is determined by attitude towards the behavior, subjective norms and an individual’s perception on their ability to control behavior (Ajzen 2005). Cognitive Dissonance theory According to this theory people have a tendency of seeking a consistency in their inner dispositions (both attitudes and beliefs). Further there is also a need for personal behavior to be in tune with attitudes and beliefs held. If there is a disconnect between behavior and attitudes, then it is...

Words: 816 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Attitudes and Behaviors Work Place

...ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS WORKPLACE Rashaanah Conix H.S./255 02/01/2016 JOSEPH WILNER ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS WORKPLACE In today society and living in America, there are different Cultures of people professionally, politically, educationally. In addition, with different religion, sexual orientation and spiritually. Sometimes interferes with the quality of life that influence the way we caring ourselves when interacting with people from different Cultural and background. Communication gap may influence others how they communicate with people from different cultural. During work this may lead a major problem developing and associating with co -workers and production ability to reach it goals (Diversity Journal, 2015). The elements of concern influence the work environment are how individual conduct themselves at work around people of different background. Always can lead to change of behavior toward others and a different style of communicating with others. Problems when involves a diversity of people may become a challenges for all and conflicts among those that are involve. Together in a diversity of Cultural may become a challenge because of the different beliefs and Values that are taught to each individual as they become adults. They take those beliefs with them may be unconscious not fully aware of how they are approaching situations by using their beliefs and Values from cultural. When confronted with someone different beliefs are when we rely the difference...

Words: 428 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Arousal, Behavior and Attitude Paper

...Using the text for this course, the University Library, the Internet, or other resources answer the following questions. Your response to each question must be at least 250 words in length. 1. What are the differences between physiological and psychological needs? Provide examples of each in your response. Answer: The differences between physiological needs and psychological needs are vast. One of the most important differences is that physiological needs are material as opposed to psychological need, which are mental and non-material in nature (Deckers, 2010). However, sometimes “psychological needs are assumed to emerge into consciousness from physiological needs (Deckers, 2010)”. The physiological needs entail the need for oxygen, water, vitamins, warmth, cool, rest, avoidance of pain, and urination among many others. In order to satisfy these needs, things like food, air, water, etc., must be provided. For example, to satisfy hunger, one would need to provide food. If the food is not provided, the person’s glucose level will become lower, they will probably suffer nausea, lightheadedness and low energy levels since the physiological needs are responsible for pushing the individual’s organism into action. Without the satisfaction of the physiological need, it is possible that the individual’s physical wellbeing would be negatively affected (Deckers, 2010). On the other hand, although psychological needs like physiological needs center around the notion of a...

Words: 1066 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Characters’ Emotions, Attitudes, and Behaviors

...| DECEMBER 17, 2014How Do I Trust Again? SUZIE ELLER | "Blessed is the man who trusts in the LORD, whose trust is the LORD. He is like a tree planted by water, that sends out its roots by the stream, and does not fear when heat comes, for its leaves remain green, and is not anxious in the year of drought, for it does not cease to bear fruit." Jeremiah 17:7-8 (ESV) We walked into the doctor's office fully expecting good news. We walked out carrying a slew of pamphlets and news that we didn't see coming. Cancer is a place we've been through before as a couple. Except back then it was me, and now it's him. In the hours after his diagnosis, we attended a sweet birthday celebration for a grandchild. We danced under the stars at a family wedding. When the busy weekend finally passed, I sat in the living room with my Bible in front of me. Sun streamed in through windows as I grieved. Lord, I don't want to do this again. I glanced at my open Bible and read the Scripture verse in Jeremiah I'd committed to memory the week before: "Blessed is the man who trusts in the LORD, whose trust is the LORD. He is like a tree planted by water, that sends out its roots by the stream, and does not fear when heat comes, for its leaves remain green, and is not anxious in the year of drought, for it does not cease to bear fruit." As I memorized it, I had pictured a tall tree, its leafy branches hovering over the water, roots reaching for nourishment. The tree was laden with fruit, though everything...

Words: 765 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Does Behavior Follow from Attitudes

...Does Behavior always follow from Attitudes? That is a question that most teachers want to know in the early stages of their teaching career. After doing my field study, I know that a persons attitude affect behavior. The attitude that people hold determines what they do. I decided to do my field study based on chapter 4 from the text book entitled Behavior and Attitudes. I choose this topic because I want to be an effective teacher and I know that I will be faced with several behaviors and attitudes. I also know that the task of learning in the classroom is not solely on the shoulders of the student but both teacher and the students have important roles in the learning process. I had the opportunity to observe students at Thea Bowman Leadership Academy Charter School in Gary. I observed two special education classes. One was a special education class that consisted of grades K-3 the other special education class consisted of grades 4-6. Then I observed a regular 6th grade class and a regular Kindergarten class. Not only did I observe the students in the classroom but outside the class as well. I also observed the teachers. Behavior is one of the greatest challenges a special education teacher faces, especially when students getting special education services are in inclusive classrooms. When observing the special education class I saw how the teachers play various roles in the classroom. The most important is that of classroom manager. Effective teaching and learning cannot...

Words: 1242 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Relation Between Motivation Attitudes and Behavior

...XIAOMI: FUTURE INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC GROWTH CASE STUDY REPORT STOYKO STOEV, S2874075 XIAOMI: FUTURE INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC GROWTH CASE STUDY REPORT STOYKO STOEV, S2874075 INTRODUCTION Xiaomi, co-founded by Lei Jun – a computer science graduate, and Lin Bin – formerly in charge of Google’s Chinese operations, has gone from a start-up to the third largest handset maker worldwide, only behind Apple and Samsung, in less than five years. This report has as a purpose to outline a prediction about the company’s future and is limited to projected growth of Xiaomi in both Chinese and international market, and reasons for the probable success it would have. INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION AND GROWTH Currently, Xiaomi only operates in Asia and is predominantly sold in China, but has revealed plans to expand to other markets in the near future. Chances of success in them are rather high and, moreover, the organisation can further solidify its position in China and increase smartphone sales not just internationally, but also domestically. The foreign locations in which Xiaomi is most likely to prosper are countries with developing economies such as Brazil, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, India, and Southeast Asia and the reasons for the possible prosperity are the developed methods and the reputation of the company. GOOD QUALITY AND AFFORDABILITY Until recently, it was widely believed that direct proportionality existed between quality and price and neither can be low...

Words: 806 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Critical Review of : "Attitude Towards Knowledge Sharing Behavior"

...MANAGEMEN THOUGHT Critical Review  Attitude Towards Knowledge Sharing  Behavior                Lenny Martini ‐  29006014  MSM ITB ‐ 2006  Attitude Towards Knowledge Sharing Behavior : A Critical Review 1..O Source VERVIEW OF THE PAPER Title of the Paper “ Attitude Towards Knowledge Sharing Behavior” The Journal of Computer Information Systems; Winter 2005/2006; pg.45-51 Writers • • Sai Ho Kwok – California State University, Long Beach, California Sheng Gao – The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Kowloon Abstract Based on the theory of reasoned action, this study is focused on an individual’s behavior of knowledge sharing with respect to information system/ information technology (IS/IT) by investigating their attitude towards knowledge sharing. Three variables, namely extrinsic motivation, absorptive capacity and channel richness, were examined as influential factors affecting people’s attitude towards knowledge sharing. A structural survey was conducted to test the relationships between attitude and the three variables. The results show that extrinsic motivation imposed no impact on an individual’s attitude towards knowledge sharing while the other two factors played a significant part. The results are consistent with the psychological theories and we showed the applicability of the theories in the case of knowledge sharing. Keywords : Knowledge sharing, attitude, extrinsic motivation, absorptive capacity, channel richness, knowledge management. Objectives...

Words: 3831 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

The Effects of Brand Relationship Norms on Consumer Attitudes and Behavior

...87  2004 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc. ● Vol. 31 ● June 2004 All rights reserved. 0093-5301/2004/3101-0008$10.00 The Effects of Brand Relationship Norms on Consumer Attitudes and Behavior PANKAJ AGGARWAL* The key premise underlying this work is that when consumers form relationships with brands they use norms of interpersonal relationships as a guide in their brand assessments. Two relationship types are examined: exchange relationships in which benefits are given to others to get something back and communal relationships in which benefits are given to show concern for other’s needs. The conceptual model proposes that an adherence to or a violation of these relationship norms influences the appraisal of the specific marketing action and also the overall brand evaluations. Results of three experiments provide converging evidence in support of the theory. Branding and brand-based differentiation are powerful means for creating and sustaining competitive advantage. Prior research has examined differences in how consumers perceive and evaluate brands, for example, through investigating brand equity (Keller 1993; McQueen, Foley, and Deighton 1993), brand personality (Aaker 1997; Plummer 1985) and brand extensions (Aaker and Keller 1990; Nakamoto, MacInnis, and Jung 1993). More recently, researchers have noted that consumers differ not only in how they perceive brands but also in how they relate to brands (Fournier 1998; Muniz and O’Guinn 2001). This...

Words: 11722 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

The Impact of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Employees' Attitudes and Behaviors

...Journal of Management http://jom.sagepub.com/ The Impact of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Employees' Attitudes and Behaviors Rebecca R. Kehoe and Patrick M. Wright Journal of Management 2013 39: 366 originally published online 8 April 2010 DOI: 10.1177/0149206310365901 The online version of this article can be found at: http://jom.sagepub.com/content/39/2/366 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: Southern Management Association Additional services and information for Journal of Management can be found at: Email Alerts: http://jom.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://jom.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav >> Version of Record - Jan 23, 2013 OnlineFirst Version of Record - Apr 8, 2010 What is This? Downloaded from jom.sagepub.com at HONG KONG POLYTECHNIC UNIV on January 21, 2014 Journal of Management Vol. 39 No. 2, February 2013 366-391 DOI: 10.1177/0149206310365901 © 2010 Southern Management Association. Reprints and permission: http://www. sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav The Impact of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Employees’ Attitudes and Behaviors Rebecca R. Kehoe Patrick M. Wright Cornell University Although strategic human resource (HR) management research has established a significant relationship between high-performance HR practices and firm-level financial and market outcomes...

Words: 13601 - Pages: 55

Premium Essay

2. What Knowledge, Traits, Behaviors, and Attitudes Should a Team Leader and Team Members Have and Why?

...There is a multitude of aspects that all culminate into the success of a team, from traits and behaviors, to the attitude of a team leader and its members down to the overall knowledge base that is shared in the group dynamic. When working in a group dynamic, having sub groups or individuals working on specific targets and goals is common. Establishing the rules of communication early and how tasks will be handles will go far in mitigating problems that may arise along the way. Breakdowns in coordination can happen at any given moment, and because of the group interdependence, a small breakdown can escalate and encroach onto other areas. A good way to circumvent possible problems is for the entire group to understand the events that are critical to the success of the team. Leaders should also have a strong base of expert and legitimate power that stems from their own authority granted by an organization as well as their expertise, skill and knowledge regarding the project. When a leader is fully capable and respected by the group, this also aids the transitional period as a group moves from one stage to another. There are a number of traits that could make an individual successful, or make them a hindrance in a team. The first that is important is the ability to be a self-starter, or a person who is able to undertake tasks that need to be accomplished. When a group begins to flow and advance past the initial phase, depending on how its established, there could be a lot...

Words: 577 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Paper

...Wonka and the Chocolate Factory | |[pic] | |Issues dealing with prejudice, discrimination, attitudes, attitude change, person perception, self, social influence, helping behavior, | |empirical methods, parenting styles commentary, competition | | | |Lord of the Rings | |[pic] | |Issues dealing with attitudes, violence, deception, compliance, obedience, person perception, self, altruism, interpersonal attraction, | |personal relationships, helping behavior, aggression | | | |Chocolat ...

Words: 1176 - Pages: 5