The Mind in Idealism

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By niihornsby
Words 2973
Pages 12
Philosophy of mind is widely considered a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness, and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain. The mind–body problem, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is commonly seen as one key issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body, such as how consciousness is possible and the nature of particular mental states. One of these issues that do not presume a relationship of a mind and body is the conception of mind in Idealism. Philosophically, idealism is the view that fundamental reality is the make-up of mind and ideas only. This essay will discuss at length what the mind generally means to the idealist especially in the classical sense as espoused by George Berkeley and then proceed to analyse the concept of mind or self in the radical transcendentalism of Joseph von Schelling and conclude with Edmund Husserl, a 20th century philosopher and reputed founder of Phenomenology
Idealism is the form of monism that sees the world as consisting of minds, mental contents and or consciousness, according to Stoljar (2005). Idealists are not faced with explaining how minds arise from bodies: rather, the world, bodies and objects are regarded as mere appearances held by minds. According to Stoljar, accounting for the mind–body problem is not usually the main motivation for idealism; rather, idealists tend to be motivated by the following: a. SKEPTICISM
In order to understand the concerns for scepticism in Idealism, it is worthy to note that this is as a result epistemological concerns. Contrasted with epistemological realism, epistemological idealism is a subjectivist position in epistemology that holds…...

Similar Documents

The Mind

...The mind is a tool; maybe even a weapon and it can be very deadly or dangerous to mankind. The mind has created some of the most destructive creations know to man including the nuke, or atom bomb. These are two things that have destroyed cities, houses, and even killed thousands of human lives. Then you have a superior mind such as Beethoven created amazing pieces of musical art work. Beethoven wrote most of the famous pieces we know today as a deaf man, that just tells you what a mind is capable of doing. It is amazing what the mind can do considering that they say we are only able to use so much of the brain. I’m not saying that the brain and mind is the same thing because they are not. A brain is a physical thing or something that you can hold, a mind is just something that can’t be seen with eyes. In Buddhist scriptures it is said that the human body is equal to a guest home and the mind as a guest dwelling. The mind leaves our body, when it is time for us to die, and goes to the next life. This is similar to the guest leaving the house and moving elsewhere. Well anyways back to the point Mr. Deville only 10% of our brains are used and is said that if we were able to tap the other 90% that we could read “pie” to the twenty thousandth decimal place, or even have telekinetic powers. There is even a website called that students from Harvard university had came up with, which includes brain training activities online that work and that help your mind skills...

Words: 1049 - Pages: 5

Idealism in Education

...IDEALISM IN EDUCATION 01. INTRODUCTION Idealism is the oldest theory of philosophy. Its origin goes back to ancient India in the East and to Plato in the West. Generally, Idealists believe that ideas are the true reality. According to them, the human spirit is the most important element in life. Matter is not real. It attaches great significance to the study of man and his mind. It maintains that the material and physical universe is subordinate to a higher type of reality, a spiritual universe. CHIEF EXPONENTS OF IDEALISM (I) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) The Videc Rishis of India Plato – (427-347 B.C) Kant (1724- 1804 A.D) Hegal (1770-1831 A.D) Froebel (1772 – 1852 A.D) Swami Dyananda (1825 – 1883 A.D) R.N. Tagore (1861-1941 A.D) Aurobindo Ghosh (1872 – 1950 A.D) 02. MEANING OF IDEALISM The word „Idealism‟ signifies two terms: „Idea‟ and „ideal‟. In other words Idealism is born out of Plato‟s “Theory of Ideas”. According to this doctrine, the ultimate supremacy is of ideas. In this way, the real word is „ideaism‟, but adding the letter „I‟ for pronunciation facility it is known as idealism. 03. DEFINITION OF IDEALISM (i) (ii) Views of D.M. Dutta: “Idealism holds that ultimate reality is spiritual”. Views of J.S. Ross: “Mind or spirit is the essential world stuff that the true reality is of a mental character”. (iii) Harold B. Titus: “Idealism asserts that reality consists of ideas, thoughts, minds, or selves rather than material objects and force”. (iv) R.N.......

Words: 2938 - Pages: 12

Consider Whether Idealism Provides a Satisfactory Account of the Nature and Existence of Physical Objects.

...whether idealism provides a satisfactory account of the nature and existence of physical objects. The Idealism of Bishop Berkeley, rejects the existence of physical as they are usually thought off. Whatever we think they are, our idea is that that a physical object is something that is mind-independant. All forms claim that reality is, in some important sense, dependant on minds. Berkeley claims that the ordinary objects of perception; table, chairs, trees and so on, are dependant on minds. They must be perceived in order to exist: esse est percipi ( to be is to be perceived). The only thing that exists then are minds, which perceive, and that what is perceived by the mind. Therefore, nothing exists that is independent of the mind. Idealism claims, then, that what we think of as physical objects are bundles of ideas that we have come to associate with each other, because they are observed to accompany each other. The reason Berkeley argued for this conclusion, as he believed we are unable to make proper sense of the idea of a physical object. In order for this to make sense Berkeley goes on to apply the same argument given against secondary qualities to the primary qualities said to be inherent in the object. He feels that the qualities Locke sees as belonging to objects themselves, collapse upon annalyse, into the secondary qualities of perception. Berkeley argues that primary qualities are no different from the secondary qualities , being equally mind......

Words: 1209 - Pages: 5


...and the Mind/Body Problem The Synopsis: Star Trek Episode “The Measure of a Man” deals with the thought that android could have physical and mental properties. In order to fully understand or evaluate this we have to have a clear understanding of the Mind/Body Problems and solutions. Humans are material objects consisting of physical and mental properties. (Hasker, 1983) Physical properties examples are height, weight, color, shape or size and mental properties are awareness, consciousness, feeling, thinking, emotions and senses. The problem arises because these properties interact where intentional or unintentional continuously. (Hasker, 1983) Hasker discusses several mind/body solutions such as idealism, materialism, behaviorism, dualism, and emergentism. Data is an android that was assembled to resemble a human being. In this episode Commander Maddox has orders for Data to transfer to his unit for disassemble with a goal to learn more about him or as Maddox referred to him as “it”, so an arm of androids can serve the Starfleet. Data refuses and has his Captain Picard supporting him. Maddox’s stand is Data has no rights and his characteristics were developed by man to resemble humans so we can direct him. Hasker talks about Behaviorism which states mental properties are special categories of physical properties. (Hasker, 1983) The mind/body solution could be used due to Maddox’ thinking that Data is a physical representation of a dream, conceived in the mind of......

Words: 692 - Pages: 3

Schiller Versus Idealism

...Idealism versus Reality I wish to begin my inquiry and understanding of what Schiller is trying to say by defining and listing Adam’s Smith ideas on division of labor and its beneficial and undesired effects. It is important to do so as Smith is a predecessor to Schiller and the society/circumstances Schiller is subject to is a product of adherence or implementation of Smith’s philosophy since its propagation. Adam Smith theorizes that division of labor leads to increased efficiency by saving time, as direct result of specialization of labor at each step in production, this specialization on part of labor needs to increased dexterity and ingenuity on part of the laborers who with their experiential knowledge will improvise production or invents things to save their labor and time. All this will leads to betterment of the society because there will be more good and commodities available for the society as whole, but at the cost of the individuals or the class of workers subject to DOL system of production. According to Smith they will turn in to dull human beings, incapable of analysis and protecting their country. And he proposes the idea of compulsory universal education that will at least lessen this undesired outcome of DOL to some degree. A necessary sacrifice by the part of the society for the betterment of society as a whole. This separation of part from the whole at a macro level is what is going to form the basis of Schiller’s opposition to Smith’s......

Words: 961 - Pages: 4

The Bureaucratic Mind

...Running Head: THE BUREAUCRATIC MIND! 1 ! ! ! ! ! The Bureaucratic Mind! Aparna V! M2014HRM008, MA (HRM & LR)! TISS, Mumbai! ! ! ! ! THE BUREAUCRATIC MIND! 2 The Bureaucratic Mind! ! Bureaucracy can be defined as a system of administration founded on policies, procedures and, often, a rigid hierarchical structure. In the context of human psyche, this essay argues that the human mind has a tendency to be inherently and naturally bureaucratic in numerous ways. A few parallels are drawn as a demonstration of this argument.! ! Highly Structured Mind An infant’s mind is free from any rigid structures of identity. Over a period of time, many such constructs evolve with which the infant identifies itself. A few of these basic constructs include the notion of ‘self ’ and ‘other’, ‘right’ and ‘wrong’, the concept of gender, and the notion of a family. As a child grows, several other constructs including that of nationality, caste, and religion are built into the human mind. A growing person might begin to associate herself with such notions, thus fortifying the structures in their mind. The world at large is perceived through the sieve of such structures. Once absorbed, it requires a conscious and sustained effort to unlearn the structures.! Further, there is a tendency to adhere to formal time-tested methods to achieve certain ends rather than being informal and adventurous. It can be observed that the human mind tends to align itself better with the rest of......

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Idealism and the Missing Explanation Argument

...Idealists believe that we know objects through the way we perceive them, that they are mind-dependent. However, realists, who believe objects are mind-independent, proposed the missing explanation argument in order to disprove idealism. This theory supposes that everything is dependent on the mind; if this is true, then nothing in idealism can explain the regularities in our experiences. Although idealists and realists both provide good reasoning, neither argument by itself completely explains the perception of objects. We need to apply both views. Internalists have made many attempts to answer the consistencies of experiences. One of their answers is that in order to believe that something exists, we must first know it. Therefore, it becomes an internal object which is conditioned by consciousness, and since anything conditioned by consciousness is mind-dependent, the object can only exist if there is a mind-dependent internal object. While this proof seems logical, it is very complicated; in order to fully answer the question, some aspects of realism are required. Immanuel Kant seems to do this despite his rejection of realism. Although Kant is considered an idealist, he uses the senses to explain “noumena,” which defines external objects that are unconditioned by our thinking of them. He begins by making a distinction between these “things-in-themselves” and internal objects, but completely avoids elaborating on actual objects by stating that we can only access things......

Words: 644 - Pages: 3

Brain and Mind

...The Mind-Brain Problem JOHN BELOFF Department of psycho log^, George Square, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Scotland Abstract-The mind-brain problem, which is still with us, raises the question as to whether the mind is no more than the idle side-effect of our brain processes or whether the mind can, in some degree, influence behavior. Here we rehearse the arguments on both sides plus some desperate recent attempts to eliminate mind altogether. What is the Problem? However contentious, the philosophical problem, as distinct from the physiological problem, can be stated quite simply as follows: What, essentially, is the relationship between events in the brain and those private, subjective, introspectible experiences that together constitute our inner mental life? We need not assume here that consciousness is synonymous with mind-consciousness may well be no more than just one aspect of mind-but, with respect to the problem at issue, it is the existence of consciousness that is critical. Stated thus, the problem admits of only three basic answers: (1) Events in the brain, operating in accordance with the laws of physics, determine completely both our behavior and our subjective experiences. (2) Mental events may be elicited by events in the brain or they may, in turn, elicit brain events and so influence the course of our behavior (I use here the word 'elicit' rather than 'cause' advisedly since the kind of causation here envisaged is so......

Words: 5887 - Pages: 24


...IDEALISM AND EDUCATION A. WHAT IS IDEALISM? In the Idealist tradition, * the spiritual and the ideal are central to man’s experience and to our interpretation of reality * ideas are of ultimate importance: they are primary, matter is secondary (less important) * matter is perceived through senses, which are not always reliable * ideas are only grasped by the mind, and therefore more reliable * whatever is known is known through the mind, in the form of ideas B. THE MAIN TENETS OF IDEALISM Views about reality * only the mental or the spiritual is ultimately real * the world is an expression of a universal Mind * ideas are real, material objects are less real than the ideas that refer to them * the world of the mind and ideas is eternal, permanent, unchanging and orderly * truth and values are absolute and universal (the same everywhere) * a human being has a material body and an immortal soul (mind) * the soul is durable and permanent Views about knowledge * the human mind has latent ideas at birth (ideas that are present, but not developed or fully formed) * Plato believed: knowledge is merely remembering (reminiscence) what is already in the mind * true knowledge is gained through strict mental discipline, mainly through Maths, Philosophy and Logic * senses are important as points of contact with the material world, but they are not always reliable. * the mind is the most important part of a person’s being *......

Words: 1054 - Pages: 5

Mind Your Mind

...MIND YOUR MIND Dr. Madhav Raje MBBS,MD, DFM, DPM, DPC, BA,MA. PSYCHIATRIST Ayodhya Nagar, Nagpur Mind this !  An Engineering student wants to be an ‘actor’,  A doctor of 15 years experience want to join Amway. Preparations  Evaluate Likings / Disliking,  SWOT Analysis.  Have a HERO / IDEAL. 4th  Now you know MIND is the Platform of success. Mind this one! 3 MAIN DOMAINS of mind Language Scientific Creative Poem – Language Domain  Your Poem is an indication of your Domain of Language. Scientific Domain - an experiment  Scientific thinking = No Faith = Analytical mind!  Language – Artist = Faith Be Creative nogre lab dada ! be ham DEVELOP your STYLE of thinking LIKE Change? Change your It will change your “ Life” ! BREAK please nogre lab Dada ! Be ham DAY Evolve with “FAITH” § RISE WITH “ FAITH” GROW WITH “ ANALYTICAL MIND” ADD ON/ TOP UP WITH “CREATIVITY” STAY WITH “FAITH”. § § § EMPOWER your mind with faith!  Have faith in ‘faith’ to grow “faithful” ! YOUR QUALITIES ? 1 .Impatient OR Very patient ! 2. Short- tempered 3. Not – very confident ( inferiority complex, or Superiority complex) 4. fault – finding or Egoist & many more Indication of “ NEGATIVE MIND”. YOUR QUALITIES ? Accepts Criticism ! Gets benefited from it. Loves himself/herself. Takes good care of self. Rarest Angry / emotional outburst on anyone. Helps......

Words: 366 - Pages: 2

Idealism and Beauty

...Idealism and Beauty The ideal image of the monarchy system is absolute power and strength. In Thailand, the mythological creature Garuda symbolizes the Thai monarchy. Its various significant features serve as a powerful image of the royal families, the widespread usages of the figure as the official seals of the civil government, and its appearance in all forms of art, architecture, and even modern sculpture. Yet, besides Garuda in Thailand, Dragon is also another significant mythological creature of the Asian culture. In China, it serves as a symbol of monarchy. In the same way, its special features of a non-existing creature create an impeccable, respected image for the emperor and his royal family. Even though the Garuda and dragon share the same purpose as the ideal image of power for the monarchs, however, their appearances give evidences to their dissimilar origins. This relief sculpture is taken from the walls of Wat Prakaew, Bangkok, Thailand. According to Thai mythology, Garuda always holds snakes(naga), in the picture, Garuda is tearing the snake (a symbol of evil) into two, representing its strength, and at the same time, symbolizing sovereignty. The creature is a result of an influence from the Indian culture through Brahmanism during the Buddhist era and the Hindu mythology. It is believed to be a mode of transportation for Narai, one of the Hindu gods. Plus, the Hindus also believe in the incarnation for Narai as a king, therefore; it is now a......

Words: 814 - Pages: 4


...Viewing Guide to Misunderstood Minds EDT 343 Winter, 2008 Answer the questions associated with each case study or as assigned by the instructor. Be sure to think about how your answers relate to what we you have read & have discussed. Nathan Vanhoy 1. What opportunities provided by his family helped him to “mask” his disability? 2. What were Nathan’s parents’ reactions to the teachers’ pronouncements about Nathan’s performance? What was Nathan’s reaction? 3. How did the diagnosis of Nathan affect his family? 4. What did the educators do to assist Nathan and his family? 5. What did Dr. Levine offer that was helpful to the Nathan & his family? 6. What strategies helped Nathan over time? Lauren 1. How was Lauren affected socially by her problems? 2. How was Lauren’s family affected by her problems? 3. How did Lauren & her family try to cope with her problems? 4. What did Dr. Levine provide for Lauren & her family? 5. What dilemmas are presented by the use of medication for Lauren? 6. What educational strategies are of assistance to Lauren? Sarah Lee 1. What impacts in the classroom did Sarah’s problems present for her & for her teacher? 2. How does her mother & family history provide support for Sarah Lee? 3. What does the speech & language specialist discover about......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

What Is Mind?

...Mbogo .W.A. (Moi) The course number: The date of submission: The instructor’s name: WHAT IS MIND? The mind is a complex element in a living organism that assists to understand the world around them, be able to interpret experiences and internalize ideas pertaining reality in general. Dualism and physicalism are two philosophical entities that attempt to explain reality with regards to the mind and body relationship. Physicalism dimension is normally taken to be synonymous with materialism. The two entities perceive the relationship between the mind and body from different perspectives which brings about their differences. Dualism for instance, which is derived from the concept “duo” , meaning two, holds the view of the mind/body relationship from a duality perspective. It sees the two entities as being different from each other. Dualists believe that the mind and the body cannot be reduced to be the same thing because doing so will ultimately lead to the deviation of the true meaning of reality. Their focus is aimed at critical analysis of the perspectives that normally bring the differences between the mind and the body. The body is a physical reality. The brain which is part of the body is not equivalent to the mind. Physical manipulation of the brain can be achieved to attain its well-being. For example, surgery can be done to the brain if it is malfunctioning to enhance its efficiency. On the contrary, complex processes which are not physical in......

Words: 1230 - Pages: 5

Mind and Body

...The Mind and Body Debate LaSonya Jenkins PHL 443 June 16, 2011 Dr. Dean Dowling The Mind and Body Debate Is the mind independent of the body? The relationship between the mind and body has been a stimulating argument for philosophers for many years. Some believe that the mind and body is separate entities and others believe that the mind and body are one and are dependent upon each other. The following dialogue will present the position of René Descartes and John Searle regarding the mind and body debate. Descartes: It is certainly obvious that the mind and body are two distinctly different entities. The body has physical properties whereas the mind is nonphysical. John: With all due respect Mr. Descartes, I can’t say that I fully agree with your proclamation. However, I would say that the mind is a biological state of the mental that can cause or be caused by physical changes to the body. I feel like you do not have sufficient justification of the relationship of the body and mind (Searle, 2004). Descartes: Well young man, let me explain a few things that will support my premise in a substantial way that may indeed change your position. First of all, the mind can exist without the present of the body. You see John; the existence of my body is dubitable whereas my mind is not. Therefore my mind does not consist of the same properties of my body. This is a clear distinction that my mind is separate from my body. John:......

Words: 826 - Pages: 4

Philosophy Idealism

...Philosophy Idealism The study of philosophy idealism is an interesting subject that contains views from different philosophers. It begins with the thought that discusses the theory of mind over matter versus matter over mind. This train of thought also includes the theory of perception versus reality. Idealism came into existence through the study of metaphysics. Metaphysics is the study of existence within the mind. The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were the most noted times of discussion about idealism (Moore & Bruder, 2011). Idealism argues against other philosophical theories including materialism, realism, rationalism, and skepticism. Idealism’s most common argument is versus the theory of materialism (Lennon, 2008). The argument between idealism and materialism focuses on the two thoughts of mind over matter or matter over mind. There were many philosophers during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries who presented their views regarding Idealism. David Hume, George Berkeley. Immanuel Kant and Georg Hegel were very influential philosophers during that time frame. The differences between the ideas of perception and reality were discussed frequently by these philosophers (Walker, 2010). The work of previous philosophers influenced future philosophers. The ideas of each philosopher helped in the advancement of the knowledge to attain what we know today about various topics of interest in the different fields derived from the basis of philosophy. ......

Words: 1175 - Pages: 5