Premium Essay

Vitamins and Minerals


Submitted By mssilverbraces
Words 776
Pages 4
Vitamins and Minerals

Submitted by:
Charmaine Jade A. Cano
10:30 – 12:00 TTh

Submitted to:
Mr. Allan Ramal

February 4, 2014


COMMON NAME | CHEMICAL FORMULA | SOURCE | DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS | Vitamin A(retinol)C20H30O | | liver (of any animal),paprika, red pepper, cayenne, chili powder ,sweet potatoes, carrots, dark leafy greens,butternut squash, dried herbs, lettuce, dried apricots, cantaloupes | * Night-blindness * Continuous headache * Decreased immunity against infections (especially of the airways) * Skin problems * Dry, breakable hair * Kidney stones | Vitamin D (cholecalciferol)C27H44O | | egg yolks, fish oils, and fortified foods like milk.* body manufactures it when skin is exposed to sunlight | * Rachitis * Pain in the bones * Muscle weakness and muscle cramp * Osteoporosis | Vitamin E ( D - alpha-tocopherol)C29H50O2 | | vegetable oils, nuts, and green leafy vegetables. avocados, wheat germ, and whole grains. | * Neurological problems due to poor nerve conduction | Vitamin K (phylloquinone)C31H46O2 | | herbs, dark leafy greens, spring onions (scallions), brussles sprouts, broccoli, chili powder, curry, paprika, and cayenne, asparagus, cabbage, pickled cucumber, prunes | * Dependent coagulation factors, causing defective coagulation and bleeding. |


COMMON NAME | CHEMICAL FORMULA | SOURCE | DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS | Vitamin C( ascorbic acid)C6H8O6 | | red berries, kiwi, red and green bell peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, spinach, and juices made from guava, grapefruit, and orange | * Scurvy * Feeling of weakness * Wounds don’t cure well * Tranquility * Bleeding gums * Receiving bruises easily * Loose teeth * Pain in the joints * No appetite * Heart problems | B Vitamins | B1 (Thiamin)C12H17N4OS | | beef, bread

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Introduction to Bone Health and Vitamins/Minerals

...Introduction to Bone Health and Vitamins/Minerals – Week 5: iLab A. Where are they found or come from? B .What are they recommended for? C. What is the dose? D. Are there any warnings about this use of the substance? E. Include personal experience with any of these substances if you would like to disclose 1.  Cascara Sagrada A. Cascara sagrada is the dried bark of the buckthorn Rhamnus purshiana tree. B. Relieving occasional constipation (irregularity). C. 300 mg capsule is taken in early evening D. Cascara sagrada should not be taken for more than 7 days, if pregnant or nursing, if you have intestinal bowel problems or blockages, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ulcers or diarrhea. Finally, children under 12 should not use the herb. E. No known personal experience.  2.  Dong Quai A. Dong quai is a plant. People use the root to make medicine. B. Dong quai is used for menstrual cramps, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and menopausal symptoms. It is also used orally as a “blood purifier”; to manage hypertension, infertility, joint pain, ulcers, “tired blood” (anemia), and constipation; and in the prevention and treatment of allergic attacks. Dong quai is also used orally for the treatment of loss of skin color (depigmentation) and psoriasis. Some men apply dong quai to the skin of the penis as part of a multi-ingredient preparation for treating premature ejaculation. C. Applied to the glans penis 1 hour before sex and washed off...

Words: 1700 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...Vitamins Absorption and storage Toxicity preservation in foods Overview: Essential organic substances Carbon- containing Needed in small amounts Essential: can’t be synthesized by body DO NOT provide energy To be a VITAMIN: 1. Body can’t make enough to maintain health 2. Absence-> deficiency-> cured with the vitamin Vitamins classification Fat-soluble vitamins: A D E K Water soluble vitamins & choline Thiamin/riboflavin/niacin/pantothenic acid/biotin/vitamin B-6/folate (folic acid)/Vitamin B-12/Vitamin C/choline Vitamins: absorption & storage Vitamin: A D E K Fat-soluble Absorbed with fat (40%-90% absorbed) ↓Fat absorption->↓fat soluble vitamin Stored in Liver and Adipose tissue B vitamins, Vitamin C, Choline Water-soluble: Absorbed in small intestine High bioavailability (50%-90%) Transported to liver-> body tissues Inside cells activated into coenzymes Storage limited Cooking issues: easily destroyed Water-soluble vitamins CHO, FAT, PRO metabolism: thiamin riboflavin niacin pantothenic acid tiotin Vitamin toxicity █Fat-soluble: Not excreted from body Toxicity by vitamin A most frequently observed █Water- soluble: Excess excreted in urine Exception: B6&B12 stored in liver Deficiency: more than 1d needed ie: thiamin(10d) Vitamin C(20-40d) Vitamin toxicity most frequently from supplemental sources: NOT FOODS Vitamin preservation in foods █Water-soluble destroyed by heat, light, air, cooking in water & alkalinity █More ripe...

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...“Vitamins were first introduced in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Fink (1884-1967). Nutrition is essential for growth, development and well-being. Behavior to promote good health should start early in life with breastfeeding and continue through life with the development of healthy eating habits. It is also the responsibility of the parents to continue to contribute to young people’s growing knowledge of nutrition, not only by providing nutritious meals in the home but also by periodically explaining the importance of vitamins, minerals and other essential vitamins. Too much or too little intake of vitamins can lead to serious illnesses. A person can become vitamin deficient if they are lacking the minimum amount of certain vitamins needed by the body to maintain regular good health. If long term vitamin deficiency occurs, a deficiency disease can develop, and this can also lead to probable death. Unlike some other food substances, such as protein and carbohydrates, of which the body needs to consume large regular quantities, vitamins are needed in small quantities. Hence, vitamins, minerals and supplements should be an important part of our daily diet in order to achieve a healthy lifestyle and to avoid vitamin deficiencies. According to researcher Meirner “a deficiency in either vitamin B12 or folate may due to inadequate dietary intake, malnutrition, chronic, significant alcohol intake, problems with gastrointestinal absorption, history of gastric surgery, sever...

Words: 1957 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...Taking vitamin C can ward off a cold TRUE or FALSE When researchers recently reviewed more than a decade’s worth of findings, they concluded that so-called mega-doses of vitamin C don’t prevent colds for most people. Some studies suggest vitamin C may help you get over the symptoms a little faster. But vitamin C doesn’t appear to lessen its intensity. What vitamins or minerals may help reduce the risk of age-related vision loss? A Zeaxanthin and lutein from fruits and vegetables B Zinc C Vitamins C and E D All of the above Studies show that a variety of nutrients may help lower the risk of age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of vision loss in people over 65. Eating a diet loaded with fruits and vegetables should give you all you need. But if you are at increased risk of age-related macular degeneration, your doctor may recommend a supplement as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking. The word vitamin comes from: A vital and amines B vitumamine, the first vitamin to be discovered Vitamins are compounds that are vital to our health. They were first thought to be amino acids, the building blocks of protein. Today, we know that 13 vitamins are essential to human health. You can usually get all you need by eating a well-balanced diet. But some people, especially those on restrictive diets, may benefit from vitamin supplements. How much do you need? The government has established recommended daily allowances for most vitamins and...

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...A Functional Approach: Vitamins and Minerals Understanding Nutrition, 11e Prepared by Michele Grodner, EdD, CHEs NUTRITION STUDENTS: IGNORE THE CHAPTER REFERENCE, THIS INFORMATION IS TAKEN FROM A DIFFERENT BOOK THAN “NUTRITION AND YOU”. BONE HEALTH Bone is active living tissue. Blood travels in capillaries through the bone, bringing nutrients to the cells that maintain the bone structure while carrying away waste materials from those cells. It picks up and deposits minerals as instructed by hormones and vitamin D. Several vitamins and minerals are essential to the growth and maintenance of healthy bones. Vitamin D directs the mineralization of bones, while vitamins K and A participate in bone protein synthesis. There would be no bone at all without deposits from the major minerals calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium that give the soft protein bone structure its density and strength. The trace mineral fluoride hardens and stabilizes the bone to maintain bone integrity. |Vitamin* |Function |Food Source |Deficiency Effect |Toxicity Effect |Chapter/Page Reference | |Vitamin K (fat-soluble) |Synthesis of proteins for bone |Green leafy vegetables, |Poor skeletal mineralization, |Interference with anticlotting |Chapter 11, pp. 383-85, 386 | | |mineralization and |cabbage-type vegetables, milk, |hemorrhage...

Words: 4468 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Mineral an Water Function

...Mineral and Water Function Essay * Mineral and Water Function Essay Kaylah Oswalt BEN VALLEJO SCI/241 9-21-2014 The vitamins and the minrals are the chemical compound and they are needed for a proper function for the body. What I have read I have found out that there are two different types of the vitamins and they are water solubles and also the fat soluble(5). Now the water solubles are the b complex and lets not forget the C that dissolves in the water soluble of vitamins. What I think that is interesting that the minerals are the inorganic elements. Did you know that the vitamins and the minerals have the specific functions(1)? Plus they are derived from the variety of foods of sources. The vitamin A is responsble for the promoting the vision, tooth development, bone growth, formation of hormones, cell reproduction healthy skin, mucous membranes, healthy skin, and finally hair(2). Now lets talk about the retinol because it is a form of a vitamin A and it is also found in the animal products for example milk, liver and eggs. Just while the beta carotene is just about an abundant that is in the plant of foods for example mangoes, carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes, apricots, and pumkin. Finally the vitamin D is known for the sunshine becaouse for this partiqular vitamin is produced by the human body from and after the exposer for the sunshine(3). The vitamin D is also found in the dairy products which that is coll and also sunflowers seeds, and finally the egg...

Words: 1248 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Nutrition Analysis Essay

...Nutrition Analysis Essay- Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins and minerals are essential to optimal body function and the overall health of body cells. These two important nutrients are needed daily to keep the body functioning in several roles such as blood clotting. Vitamins are in two forms- fat soluble and water soluble. Lack of vitamins and minerals leads to deficiencies which affects body cells. “Vitamins are organic compounds that are needed in small amounts for growth, reproduction, and overall good health, and a deficiency of any one will cause physiological symptoms” (Blake 2017, p. 228). In comparison of her nutrients report to that of table 7.3, which shows deficiencies in vitamins A, D, C, & E, she is at risk of “night blindness”, “osteomalacia i.e. bone’s inability to mineralize properly due to lack of enough calcium and phosphorus” which leads to soft bones, deficiencies can also cause “nerve problems” which can lead to inability to control body parts movements, and “lower immune function” (Blake 2017, p. 264). Vitamin D is important for bone health by ‘helping with calcium and...

Words: 826 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Major minerals | | Mineral | Function | Sources | Deficiency | Sodium | Needed for proper fluid balance, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction | Table salt, soy sauce; large amounts in processed foods; small amounts in milk, breads, vegetables, and unprocessed meats | headache, nausea, slower development of the body, and disorders of the muscles. | Chloride | Needed for proper fluid balance, stomach acid | Table salt, soy sauce; large amounts in processed foods; small amounts in milk, meats, breads, and vegetables | cause a loss in appetite and muscle cramps | Potassium | Needed for proper fluid balance, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction | Meats, milk, fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes | weakness of the muscles, even paralysis. It may also cause brittleness of the bones, sterility and heart ailments. | Calcium | Important for healthy bones and teeth; helps muscles relax and contract; important in nerve functioning, blood clotting, blood pressure regulation, immune system health | Milk and milk products; canned fish with bones (salmon, sardines); fortified tofu and fortified soy milk; greens (broccoli, mustard greens); legumes | weakens bones and teeth, and causes osteoporesis. | Phosphorus | Important for healthy bones and teeth; found in every cell; part of the system that maintains acid-base balance | Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, processed foods (including soda pop) | weakening of the bones and teeth, and loss of weight. | ...

Words: 2166 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Balanced Diet

...Balanced diet and dietary needs of different life stages A general definition of a balanced diet is food intake that not only includes all the dietary needs of the organism (person), but includes the required dietary components, e.g. water, carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, etc., in the correct proportions. A healthy diet includes carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fibre, water, vitamins and minerals. A person's dietary needs change as he or she passes through the different stages of life from birth to childhood, to adulthood and eventually later life. Dietary needs change in terms of the amount (energy value) and type (nutritional content) of foods required for good health. An important general principle is that more energy is required to support periods of growth and to fuel active lives. ‘Diet’ is the word used to describe the type and amount of food we eat on a daily basis. The term ‘balanced diet’ describes the type and amount of food we need to eat to stay healthy and avoid malnutrition Food supplies the body with energy to function and be active. Eating too much (over nutrition) or not eating a balanced diet upsets the energy balance unless excess energy is used up. For example in physical activity, overeating leads to ill health caused by being overweight. On the other hand, too low an intake of food can lead to under nutrition, nutritional deficiency diseases and starvation. Dietary reference values (DRVs) give guidance about the energy and food requirements...

Words: 2043 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Multivitamins Checkpoint Week 5 Sci/241

... It has been centuries since the thought that vitamins from some foods could cure some illnesses, but even longer to understand which ones and what aliments would be helped. Today we can be certain that there are some foods that can help, and the vitamins or minerals in the foods are the important parts of that. They can help with energy, decrease the chance of disease, and increase overall health. Vitamin D helps to promote healthy bones; Vitamin E helps your skin, and helps to fight some disease. Does taking a multivitamin every day raise your intake of a particular vitamin or mineral to near-toxic levels? According to a few readings, it is cautioned to everyone to avoid any excessive intake of a vitamin and mineral over the recommended daily value for each ingredient. So it is always important to take the recommended amount, talk to a doctor if you are taking any other medications to make sure the vitamins and minerals with not negatively impact your other medication, and to read the label and make sure you are not allergic to any of the ingredients, for example, wheat, soy, or dairy. The fat-soluble vitamins are the ones that people should make sure they control their intake for, because they are not excreted through the urine like water-soluble vitamins are. What are the consequences of toxicity? Tanking to much vitamins or minerals can make someone very ill, and can cause many other issues to the body. Too much Vitamin A can cause hair loss, and blurred vision, but...

Words: 425 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Nutritional Needs of Infants Between the Ages of 0 – 3

...REGN-15: Nursing in Health & Illness I Nutritional Needs of Infants Between the Ages of 0 – 3 Paul D. Parker October, 7th, 2009 Nutrition is “the study of food and how it affects the human body and influences health.”1 Food affects the body and influences its health by providing it with nutrients. Nutrients which provide energy to the body are proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals, help to manufacture, repair, and maintain cells. Last but not least is water, which is considered an essential nutrient. When properly supplied; nutrients, micronutrients, and water the essential nutrient all work in conjunction with one another to provide the body with all that is needs to maintain a healthy body. The key point within each age group is the supply of these nutrients. In general, infants require more nutrients than the population at large; and during certain times within infancy the source of the nutrition must be considered. The adult human gut, primarily responsible for digestion, commands nearly two-thirds of the immune system. In infants, immunological factors are underdeveloped primarily because they are born with a sterile gut.2 It is therefore imperative that they obtain their nutrients (proteins, fats, and carbohydrates) as well as immunological factors from a source that can easily be distributed to the body. During the first six months of life, the infant can obtain its nutrients in two different ways; through...

Words: 1307 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Food Science

...Team Name __________________ __________________________ Team Number__________ Food Science – Holt Invitational Science Olympiad Tournament – Division B ------------------------------------------------- You must select the best answer from the choices provided and write the letter in the blank. __b_ 1. What is the protein that is most common to cow’s milk? a. Lactose b. Casein c. Amino acids d. Serum e. Curds __d__ 2. What is the major carbohydrate in milk? a. Lactase b. Monosaccharide c. Sucrose d. Lactose e. Casein __a__ 3. For individuals aged 9-13 years old, what is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Calcium? a. 1300mg b. 200mg c. 1000mg d. 700mg e. There is no RDA value for Calcium __b__4. The process of heating liquids to destroy disease-producing bacteria as well as yeaats, molds, viruses, and less harmful bacteria is a. Homogenization b. Pasteurization c. Chemical synthesis d. Chemical hydrolysis e. Separation __a__5. What process is used to decrease the size of the fat globules in milk so that there is no separation of the fat from the milk serum? a. Homogenization b. Pasteurization c. Chemical synthesis d. Chemical hydrolysis e. Separation __d__6. The main milk lipids a. Are called triglycerides. b. Have a glycerol backbone. c. Have up to three fatty acids d. All of the above are true e. None of the above are true __e__7...

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sphe295 Lab6

...calories you consumed and your activity calories. You summary must be at least 100 words. The box will expand as you type. This is pretty plain and simple. When it comes to physical activity, I did almost nothing aside from going to work and since it was a long stressful week and I had strep. My routine for that week was get up for work, suffer through it, and go home and pass out until the next day. I believe I was feeling better towards possibly the last day of the recording. I ate what ever I wanted reguardless as to wether or not it is heallthy. I was just eating what made me feel better | Part II. Does Your Fat-Soluble Vitamin Intake Add Up? From NHANES and other dietary surveys of the American population, it’s known that many individuals do not consume the recommended intakes for all the fat-soluble vitamins. Diets are often low in vitamins D and E and carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables. The following questions can help you determine if your dietary intake of these foods and nutrients is adequate. 1. Complete the following table. In the first column, record the vegetable you ate. In the second column record the amount, for example, 1 cup. (You can add more lines to the table. Place the cursor in the last box then hit the tab button on your keyboard.) Food Item | Amount | Color | I ate no vegetables during this recording timeframe aside from Taco bell taco | 1/8 to...

Words: 1788 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Macro and Micronutrients

...our body, but eventually, our physical body will complain in the form of diseases. ​Although nutrients can work alone, each depends upon the others to be the most effective. The main nutrients are the macronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats; and the micronutrients: vitamins and minerals. . Macronutrients Macronutrients as its name implies are the molecules that are needed by the body in big amounts. They occupy the biggest portion of the nutrients absorbed by the body from the food that was eaten. 1. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates mean carbon with water. Plants use sunlight in the process of photosynthesis to convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. When our body needs energy, it looks for carbohydrates first. Carbohydrates come in two forms: simple and complex. Both are composed of units of sugar. The difference is the number of sugar units they contain, and how they link together. Simple Carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, milk and vegetables. Cake and other refined sugar products are simple sugars which also provide energy but lack in vitamins, mineral and fibers while complex carbohydrates provide vitamins, minerals and fiber. Example of...

Words: 1691 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...STUDY QUESTIONS CHAPTER 9-12 **NOTE: I have included the answers to the study questions since I am posting them so close to the exam dates. Be sure you understand the role of the hormones ADH, renin, angiotensin and aldosterone in the regulation of fluid balance. CHAPTER 9 1. Describe how body fat develops and suggest some reasons why it is difficult for an obese person to maintain weight loss. Body fat develops when fat cells increase in number and size. Prevention of excess weight gain depends on maintaining a reasonable number of fat cells; when an obese person loses weight, the body attempts to return to the original weight, or its set point. 2. What factors contribute to obesity? Genetics (leptin, ghrelin, uncoupling problems, fat cell metabolism), overeating, inactivity. 3. List several aggressive ways to lose weight and explain why such methods are not recommended for every overweight person. Fad diets, diuretics, amphetamines, other prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, hot baths, machines that jiggle, brushes, sponges, massages, surgery, gastric partitioning, gastric balloons, jaw wiring, very-low-kcalorie diets. Reasons these are not recommended: weight cycling, psychology of weight cycling, some methods do not work at all, others only provide temporary weight loss (not fat loss). 4. Discuss reasonable dietary strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight. Eating plans based on realistic energy intake...

Words: 1639 - Pages: 7